Crosstab_p

# Crosstab_p - Crosstabulation Objectives To study the use of...

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Cross-tabulation

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Objectives To study the use of cross-tabulation for data analysis. To study the test of independence, and the various measures of association. To learn how to use SPSS for crosstab analysis.
Content Introduction Chi-squared Test Measures of Association SPSS Crosstabs

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Introduction X Y Method Nominal Nominal Chi-squared test in Crosstab Nominal Ordinal or above ANOVA Ordinal or above Nominal Discriminant Analysis Ordinal or above Ordinal or above Regression Analysis
Introduction A cross tabulation involve the simultaneous counting of the number of observations that fall into each of the data categories of 2 or more variables. Age group Highly loyal Moderately loyal Brand switchers Total <30 30 42 18 90 30-40 14 20 31 65 >40 34 25 16 75 Total 78 87 65 230

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1. Introduction Example: Testing the effectiveness of coupon in increasing consumer awareness of Brand A: Before coupon After coupon Aware Not aware Total Aware Not aware Total Test area 250 350 600 330 170 550 Control area 160 240 400 160 220 380 410 590 1000 490 390 880
1. Introduction In percentage of column totals: Before coupon After coupon Aware Not aware Total Aware Not aware Total Test area 61 59 60 37 44 57 Control area 39 41 40 33 56 43 100 100 100 100 100 100

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1. Introduction In percentage of row totals : Before coupon After coupon Aware Not aware Total Aware Not aware Total Test area 42 58 100 66 34 100 Control area 40 60 100 42 58 100 41 59 100 57 43 100
1. Introduction   Simpson s Paradox Lurking variables can change or reverse a relation between two categorical variables!

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## This note was uploaded on 01/15/2010 for the course MKT mkt3010C taught by Professor Alan during the Fall '08 term at CUHK.

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Crosstab_p - Crosstabulation Objectives To study the use of...

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