Descriptive_Research_p

Descriptive_Research_p - Chapter 6 Descriptive Research...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 6 Descriptive Research Objectives To look at surveys and observations as methods of collecting data. To discuss the main methods of administering questionnaires. To discuss the conducting of surveys on the Internet. To look into observation as a method of data collection. Content Introduction Personal Interview Telephone Interview Mail Interview Internet Surveys Observation Personal Interview Biases The major source of biases in personal interview is due to the social interaction between the interviewer and the interviewee Personal Interview Interviewee Biases Reactive effect . Role selection bias. Hawthorne effect. The mere act of choosing a person to be a respondent affects his behavior. The error occurs even when the subject is well intentioned and cooperative. Respondents assume a different role in their research. Interviewee Biases (cont ) Demand effect - respondents attempt to speculate about investigator's opinions. Inability and unwillingness of the respondent to provide the desired information: The information is inaccessible: "How many cans of coca-cola did you drink in the previous month?" To collect data that relies upon the subject's memory is dangerous. Personal Interview Personal Interview Interviewee Biases (cont ) Alternative: use some unobtrusive methods that do not require the cooperation of the subject. Respondents unwilling to provide the information. Reasons: time, loss of prestige, invasion of privacy. Social desirability bias: respondents tend to say what they think they ought to do rather than what they actually do. Situational biases Personal Interview Solutions to interviewee biases: The use of indirect questions. Randomized responses technique. Personal Interview Randomized responses technique example: Sensitive question: "Did you shoplift anything from Park'n Shop in December?" Innocuous question: "Were you born in May?" Respondents are asked to flip a coin to select a question to answer. The respondent is instructed not to tell the interviewer which question has answered. Let: Total proportion of "yes" responses = = 0.20 Probability that sensitive question is selected = p = 0.5 Probability that innocuous question is selected = 1 - p = 0.5 Proportion born in May (from census) = = 0.05 Proportion of yes responses to the sensitive question = s = p s + (1 - p) or 0.20 = 0.5 x s + 0.5 x 0.05. Hence, s = 0.35 Evaluate the randomize response technique used by the HK Government to estimate the number of people who are eligible to come to HK from Mainland China....
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This note was uploaded on 01/15/2010 for the course MKT mkt3010C taught by Professor Alan during the Fall '08 term at CUHK.

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Descriptive_Research_p - Chapter 6 Descriptive Research...

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