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LS6genome - Lecture 6 Genome structure Gene and genome...

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1 Lecture 6: Genome structure Gene and genome structure Simple-sequence repeats Chromosome structure Chromatin structure Nucleosome Histones Nuclear DNA Mitochondria DNA Chloroplasts DNA DNA in prokaryoic and eukaryotic cells
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2 Organiation and content of the human genome
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3 Yeast: 12 Mb genome encodes ~5000 genes: gene/2.4kb Human: 3,300 Mb genome encodes ~25,000 genes: gene/132 kb For example, there are 5 structure genes in this 80 kb human genome region, in contrast to 48 ORF in a 80 kb region of the yeast genome. Different organisms have different gene density
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4 Comparison of the Chromosomal Gene Density in the Genomes of Different Organisms Conclusions: •Bacterial genomes have densely packed protein-coding genes, with minimal non-coding DNA sequences •Gene density decreases with increased biological complexity in eukaryotes •Protein-coding genes of higher eukaryotes have more and larger introns than lower eukaryotes •Amount of intron sequences (non-coding transcribed DNA) increases with biological complexity in higher eukaryotes Genes Repetitive DNA Two types of genomic DNA
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