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lecture2 - Fri Sept 5 2003 Todays Lecture 2.1 Early History...

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Fri. Sept. 5, 2003 Today’s Lecture • 2.1 Early History of Chemistry • 2.2 Fundamental Chemical Laws, etc…… • 2.5 Characterizing the Atom
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Matter What is matter composed of ? Why do we believe these theories? What is the evidence?
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Atoms, Molecules, and Ions (Zumdahl, Chapter 2) • History of Chemistry: – Democritus (460-370 BC): • proposed the existence of atoms (atomos) as the smallest indivisible unit – Alchemists: • discovered many elements • believed in being able to change metals into gold. – Robert Boyle (1627-1691): First “Chemist” • quantitative behavior of gases • element cannot be broken down into 2 or more simpler substances
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• Fundamental Chemical Laws: – Lavoisier (1743-1794): • “mass is neither created nor destroyed” • Law of Conservation of Mass – Proust (1754-1826): • “a given compound always contains exactly the same proportion of elements by mass” • Law of Definite Proportions –CO 2 always contain 2.66g of O for every g of C
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– Dalton (1766-1844): • explained Law of definite proportions in terms of atoms • “when 2 elements form a series of compounds, the ratios of the masses of the second element that combine with 1g of the 1 st
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lecture2 - Fri Sept 5 2003 Todays Lecture 2.1 Early History...

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