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# lecture10 - Wed Sept 24 2003 Todays Lecture Gases 5.7...

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Wed Sept. 24, 2003 Today’s Lecture Gases • 5.7 Effusion and Diffusion • 5.8-5.9 Collisions • 5.10 Real Gases • 5.11 Gases in the Atmosphere (omit)

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– Effusion of gases: • passage of gas molecules through a small hole into an evacuated chamber. 05_60 Gas Vacuum Pinhole
• rate of effusion measures rate at which the gas is transferred into the chamber • Graham’s law of effusion: • from kinetic theory: 2 1 M rate of effusion for gas 1 rate of effusion for gas 2 M = avg 11 avg 22 u for gas 1 8R T MM rate of effusion for gas 1 rate of effusion for gas 2 u for gas 2 8R T p = == p

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– Diffusion of gases: • ability of a gas to mix spontaneously with another gas • rate of diffusion is the rate of mixing of gases NH 3(g) + HCl (g) NH 4 Cl (s) • diffusion is slow even though: molecular speeds (NH 3 ) = 660 m/s molecular speeds (HCl) = 450 m/s • observed ratio is 1.3 • ratio is different due to collisions with N 2 and O 2 3 av g3 3 HCl av g NH u (N H) distance traveled by N HM 36.5 1.5 distance traveled by HC l u (HCl ) M 17 = = ==

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lecture10 - Wed Sept 24 2003 Todays Lecture Gases 5.7...

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