Morphology - 1 introduction to introduction to morphology...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 introduction to introduction to morphology morphology Linguistics 1A03/1A3E Linguistics 1A03/1A3E 2 what is morphology? what is morphology? next step after syllable: word lexicon (mind’s dictionary) – lexical entries: information about pronunciation, meaning, forms of words some lexical categories – MAJOR = verb, noun, adjectives, adverbs – MINOR = determiners, pronouns, adpositions morphology = system of categories + rules involved with word formation 3 lexical categories lexical categories verb noun – number: singular ~ plural (dual, trial) – gender – case a note on category ‘gender’ (noun class) – Romance languages: feminine, masculine – Latin; German, Old English: fem., masc., neuter – Modern English: traces in pronouns he, she, it note: grammatical gender ≠ natural gender 2 4 more on gender; case more on gender; case grammatical vs. natural gender grammatical vs. natural gender (e.g. (e.g. German) – word for spoon = masculine (Löffel) – word for fork = feminine (Gabel) – word for girl = neuter (Mädchen) grammatical gender = noun class case: identifies grammatical role of word in S – subject – direct object – indirect object (object of TO / FOR) – object of a preposition 5 case case example of case: Latin ‘male friend’ example of case: Latin ‘male friend’ singular plural nominative amic us amic ī accusative amic um amic os genitive amic ī amic orum dative amic ō amic is ablative amic ō amic is 6 adjectives and adverbs adjectives and adverbs Adj can be marked for degrees of comparisons Adv modify other word classes – V, Adj, Adv – often formed in English by adding -ly positive tall short comparative taller shorter superlative tallest shortest They’ll leave soon. It is very interesting. They did this very quickly. 3 7 adpositions adpositions prepositions and postpositions prepositions and postpositions – prepositions prepositions precede an NP (noun phrase) precede an NP (noun phrase) e.g e.g English: English: to to the store, the store, at at school, school, in in this book, this book, from from Turkey, Turkey, by by the student, the student, on on a chair a chair – postpositions postpositions follow an NP follow an NP e.g. Japanese: tookyoo ni = Tokyo to ‘to Tokyo’ 8 morphemes morphemes morpheme = smallest unit bearing/expressing meaning in language note: phoneme = smallest unit that can signal meaning meaning: includes grammatical meaning e.g. English talked (2 morphemes) untrue (2 morphemes) truthfully (4 morphemes) worker (2 morphemes) 9 morphemes morphemes morphemes are morphemes are...
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