Chapter 16 notes - 1 CHEM 1A03 Intro Chemistry I Acid-Base...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 CHEM 1A03: Intro. Chemistry I Acid-Base Chemistry Ch 16: Acids and Bases Ch.16: Acids and Bases 1 A World of Taste, Nutrition & Medicine ¡ Early qualitative tests to distinguish acids & bases by taste! ¡ Focus on fundamental acid-base chemistry to describe their Acidic: Sour O O NH + O Alkaline: Bitter P O reactivity in the context of energy, health & environment 2 Coca Leaf O O Cocaine (Alkaloid) Soft Drinks: Colas Phosphoric acid OH OH HO 2 ¡ Electrolyte dissolution behaviour Acid-Base Chemistry: Electrolyte Theory Arrhenius Theory ¡ Acids ionize to generate proton Æ H + (aq), whereas bases ionize to produce hydroxide Æ OH- (aq) ¡ Theory applicable to protic acids & metal hydroxides in water, however many exceptions Æ BF and NH Strong Acid Strong Base 3 however many exceptions Æ BF 3 and NH 3 ¡ Neutralization reaction: Net Ionic Equation Refer to Ch. 16-1, pg 664 Novel Prize 1903 Æ Electrolytic Theory Acid-Base Chemistry: Focus on H + Bronsted-Lowry Theory • acid = H + donor, base = H + acceptor HCl (aq) + H 2 O (l) Æ Cl- (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) Acid Conjugate Base Base Conjugate Acid • acid/base reactants & conjugate acid/base products: Base Conjugate Acid Acid Conjugate Base 4 Refer to Ch. 16-2, pg 664-667- note arrows go in wrong direction in text NH 3 (aq) + H 2 O (l) NH 4 + (aq) + OH- (aq) 3 ¡ Defined acid as a e- pair acceptor & base as a e- pair donor Acid-Base Chemistry: Electron Flow! Lewis Theory ¡ Least restrictive definition that describes aqueous/non-aqueous solvents, as well as unusual non-protic acid systems… NH 3 + BF 3 NH 3-BF 3 Acid Base Conjugate Adduct K a δ- F Non-bonding lone e- pair 5 Defined only in Ch 16-9 (Note in 16-2 arrow direction is opposite & incorrect) K a N B F F F H H H Both N & B with filled octet valence No apparent change in [H 3 O + ] or H + transfer! δ- B H H .. N H F F F Electron deficient 6 valence e- δ + δ- Hatala Hatala – iClicker Question #1 iClicker Question #1 Identify the Lewis acid in the following reaction: 6 4 Landry Landry – iClicker Question #1 iClicker Question #1 Identify the Lewis base in the following reaction: 7 Britz Britz – iClicker Question #1 iClicker Question #1 Identify the Lewis base in the following reaction: 8 5 Goward Goward – iClicker Question #1 iClicker Question #1 Identify the Lewis acid in the following reaction: 9 Acid-Base Chemistry: Electron Flow! Strong Acids/Bases B Conjugate Base Conjugate Acid O .. HCl (aq) + H 2 O (l) Æ Cl- (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) Acid Base Conjugate Base Conjugate Acid ..- C .. .. .. O + + δ + δ- K a >> 1 10 10 H Cl .. + H H .. Cl .. H H H + Defined only in Ch 16-9 (Note in 16-2 arrow direction is opposite & incorrect) 6 Acid-Base Equilibrium: Weak acid & K a Base Acid Conjugate Base Conjugate Acid CH 3 COOH (aq) + H 2 O (l) CH 3 COO- (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) K a 5 3 3 10 8 1 ] O ][H COO [CH − + − × = = K +- O C H 3 C O H H .....
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This note was uploaded on 01/16/2010 for the course CHEMISTRY 1A03 taught by Professor Dr.p.lock during the Fall '08 term at McMaster University.

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Chapter 16 notes - 1 CHEM 1A03 Intro Chemistry I Acid-Base...

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