chapter 1 - Chapter 1: Thinking Critically with...

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1. The Need for Psychological Science a. Did We Know It All Along? Hindsight Bias i. Hindsight bias – tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it (I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon) 1. Widespread 2. Good ideas are like good inventions; once created, they seem obvious b. Overconfidence i. Hindsight makes things seem obvious—causing people to become overconfident ii. Hindsight bias & overconfidence often lead us to overestimate our intuition c. The Scientific Attitude (3 main components) i. Curiosity – passion to explore and understand without misleading or being misled ii. Skepticism – What do you mean? How do you know? iii. Humility – awareness of our own vulnerability to error and an openness to surprises and new perspectives d. Critical Thinking i. Thinking that examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions 2. How Do Psychologists Ask and Answer Questions? a.
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chapter 1 - Chapter 1: Thinking Critically with...

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