Chapter 2 - Chapter 2 The Biology of M ind 1 Neural...

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Chapter 2: The Biology of Mind 1. Neural Communication a. Neurons i. Neurons – nerve cells; basic building block of nervous system 1. Sensory neurons – carry incoming information from sensory receptors to the brain & spinal cord 2. Motor neurons – carry outgoing information from brain & spinal cord to muscles and glands 3. Interneurons – neuron within the brain & spinal cord that communicate internally and intervene between sensory inputs and motor outputs ii. Dendrite – extensions of neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward cell body (listen) iii. Axon – extension of a neuron through which messages pass to other neurons/muscles/glands (speak) iv. Myelin sheath – layer of fatty tissue encasing the fibers of many neurons, helps speed their impulses v. Action potential – neural impulse, brief electrical charge that travels down an axon vi. Threshold – level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse b. How Neurons Communicate i. Synapse – junction between axon tip of sending neuron and dendrite or cell body of receiving neuron (synaptic gap) ii. Neurotransmitters – chemical messengers that cross synaptic gaps iii. Reuptake – neurotransmitter’s reabsorption by the sending neuron c. How Neurotransmitters Influence Us
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i. Endorphins – “morphine within” 2. The Nervous System (body’s electrochemical communication network) a. Central nervous system (CNS) – brain & spinal cord i. Brain – enables our humanity ii.
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