chapt12 - ME 4204 Mechatronic Systems Lesson Objectives...

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1 Microcontroller 2008/09 Semester 1 Lecture 9 ME 4204 Mechatronic Systems 2 Lesson Objectives Understand microprocessors and microcontrollers fundamentals Understand the architecture of Intel 8051 microcontroller Select appropriate microcontroller for real application Application examples 3 Introduction Basically, a microcontroller is a device which integrates a number of the components of a microprocessor system onto a single microchip and optimized to interact and give command in response to the outside world through on-board interfaces. It is the brain of mechatronic system and provide the system with intelligence. It performs its tasks in sequence. Popular microcontrollers widely used nowadays are: Microchip’s PIC Motorola’s 68HC11 Intel 8096 Hitachi H8 4 What is a Microprocessor? A device that integrates a number of dedicated useful functions into a single IC package The CPU of a computer on a chip Some functions are: Ability to execute a stored set of instructions to carry out user defined tasks Ability to access external memory chips to read/write data from/to memory Ability to interface with I/O devices
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5 Architecture of Microprocessor Microprocessor systems have 3 main parts: CPU The processing module to recognize and carry out program instructions Input and Output Interfaces The ports to handle the communications between the microprocessor and the peripherals Memory The area to hold the program instructions and data Bus Path to transmit digital signals from one section to another 6 Buses There are 3 forms of bus in a microprocessor: Data bus It transports data (word) to or from CPU and the memory or I/O interfaces. Each wire in the bus carries one bit. The word length depends on the number of bit of the microprocessor. Address bus It carries signals which indicate where data is to be found and so the selection of certain memory locations or I/O ports. Each storage location, I/O port has a unique identification (address) Control bus It carries signals relating to control actions and system clock signals for synchronizing all actions of the microprocessor E.g. the term “READ” and “WRITE” is used for receiving and sending a signal respectively 7 Typical Architecture of Microcontroller Watchdog 8 Typical Components of Microcontroller 1. CPU 2. RAM 3. ROM 4. Digital I/O Ports 5. Serial communication interface 6. Timers 7. Watchdog 8. A/D converters, and D/A converters
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9 Components of a typical microcontroller 1. CPU Executes the software stored in ROM, monitors and controls all the microcontroller components and consists of several smaller units: Instruction decoder - a part of electronics which recognizes program instructions. Arithmetical Logical Unit (ALU) - performs all mathematical and logical operations with data.
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