BIO1130 midterm 1 notes - Biology, Biologists, Bioscience

BIO1130 midterm 1 notes - Biology, Biologists, Bioscience -...

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ologous characters are indicators of Common Ancestry oplasie s provide no information about shared ancestry Important early people: Hippocrates: (BCE) medical involvement and Hippocratic Oath Aristotle: 1 st to make a category of animals based on religion (Scala Naturae) Theophrastus: catalogue of plants; father of taxonomy (before was only medical plants) categorized using reproductive structures Scala Naturae: - a hierarchy Aristotle (384-322 BCE) developed that ranks simplest organisms to most complex organisms - referred to as the great chain of being - understood that everything was created on Oct. 23 rd 4004 BCE. No organisms changed over time and will never change in future Essentialism: - Each organism was said to have a magical essence in them - angels highest, birds then worms down low - Essentialism is a concept used in the Scala Naturae (Aristotle) to rank the organisms Brief History in Europe and Muslim nations in medieval ages: - Europe: not much progress in sciences, rather black plague killed over 2/3 of population - Byzantium: flourished in science at the time Van Leeuwenhoek – first microscope Copernicus: earth not in the centre of the universe Harvey: father of anatomy and physiology Linnaeus: - Created system for naming and classifying organisms based on similarities and differences - made taxonomical hierarchy consisting of (Kingdom, Phylum, Class, order, Family, Genus, Species) (kings play chess on fine grain sand) - Binomial Nomenclature (covers the whole system – Kingdom, phylum etc.) Binomen: Genus Species Erasmus Darwin: - Translates Linnaeus’s work into English. - Comes up with the idea that organisms are changing overtime (poetry), however, doesn’t provide a mechanism of which to support it. Taxon: - a name given to an organism in any category (ex. Order) (i.e. woodpeckers is a taxon of the family level) Taxonomy: - naming and classifying organisms in the taxonomic hierarchy (related to Linnaeus because he created this) Domains: - Eurkarya (eukaryotes), bacteria, archea (prokaryotes) Kingdom Protista Kingdom Monera Prokaryotes: single celled, no nucleus, no membrane bound nuclear material Eukaryotes: single celled or multi-celled, membrane bound nuclear material Kingdom Plantae: photosynthetic, energy – autotrophic (get energy from sun – makes C 6 H 12 O 6 ) - Cell wall made of cellulose 1 | P a g e
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Kingdom Fungii: absorb own food (Saphophytic) - Cell wall made of chitin, energy – saprophagy Kingdom Animalia: consume food, no cell wall Vestigial Structures: - Buffon proposed this but could not give a mechanism on how it became so o structures that are functionless but are present in organisms o served as a functioning structure to ancestors (Common ancestry ) Georges Cuvier: French Zoologist - Developed the theory of Catastrophism - He found significant fossils and proposed that some of the animals earlier have gone extinct - Catastrophic Theory : extinction of an organism due to a major catastrophe (ex. Flood) o Said that once catastrophe hit, the species would get “wiped out”, forming layers of fossils in the sediment. These layers and fossils would give us a good understanding of
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BIO1130 midterm 1 notes - Biology, Biologists, Bioscience -...

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