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BIO1130 - Proterozoic - Proterozoic ber of sporozoites inof...

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Increase in number of sporozoites in Cyst mber of sporozoites in Liver cells and in Red Blood Cells Proterozoic Protist: - Membrane bound nucleus, have microtubules and microfilaments, etc. (that is why they are eukaryotic) - Unicellular and microscopic, some are large and multicellular - Almost all are aquatic (collection of about 200, 000) - Kingdom of Protista (or ‘Protoctista’) Distinct Characteristics of Eukaryotic Cells : - Endomembrane System: o Membranous sacs that divide the cell into different organelles o Scientists hypothesize that the cell membranes may have extended inwards and surrounded the DNA to create the nucleus, and other remaining membranes gave rise to ER and Golgi nuclear envelope , the ER, golgi complex The infolding plasma membrane responsible for evolution - Nuclear Envelope (Nucleus ): o Controls movement of proteins and RNA molecules into and out of nucleus - Endosymbiosis: o States that prokaryotic ancestor of mitochondria and chloroplasts were engulfed by larger prokaryotes and formed a mutual symbiotic relationship over time became inseparable parts of the cell o The rise in atmospheric O 2 is a major factor in occurrence of endosymbiosis because mitochondria carry out aerobic respiration o Mitochondria evolved first, then chloroplast . Cells with both mitochondria and chloroplast are developed into the plants and algae of today. (Chloroplast developed in cyanobacteria because – photosynthetic) o Evidence suggesting endosymbiont theory is correct : (mitochondria and chloroplasts are descendents from prokaryotic cells) Morphology: mitochondria represent aerobic prokaryotes, chloroplasts resemble cyanobacteria Reproduction: both mitochondria and chloroplast divide by binary fission (how prokary. divide) Genetic Information : Contains own genetic DNA and codes for organelle’s function Transcription and Translation : Contain complete transcription and translational machinery (also, contain ribosomes that are familiarly found in prokaryotes, not eukaryotes) Electron Transport : Can both generate ATP through their own electron transport chains (ETC) - Secondary Endosmybiosis: (Chloroplast) o Primary: (above) Eukaryotic cell engulfed a photosynthetic cyanobacterium (did not digest it, rather used it) Chloroplasts with 2 membranes (all land plants) o Secondary: Three separate events in which red and green algae were involved Red algae: Photosynthetic red algae was engulfed (chlorplast or plastid had 4 membranes around it) Became the chloroplasts of heterokonts and dinoflagellates (apicomplexans had remnant plastid : family of plant organelles) Green Algae: Photosynthetic green algae were engulfed, which led to the formation of chlorarachniophtyes and euglenoids - Flagellum : o Eukaryotic and prokaryotic flagella are structurally different (even though same function-movement) They are analogous structures (do NOT share a common ancestry) o Prokaryotic flagellum:
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