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Final Exam BIO1130 - Carboniferous_and_Permian

Final Exam BIO1130 - Carboniferous_and_Permian -...

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Carboniferous and Permian Carboniferous Period : - Huge plants take lots of carbon dioxide out of the air, thus increase oxygen levels to 35% o Never returning the carbon dioxide back (nothing to break down lignin yet) Coal Forests : - In Carboniferous, there was nothing to breakdown the plant matter the huge plants fossilized and turned to coal o Fungi would eventually appear and be able to break apart lignin. .eventually - Club Mosses: o Huge tall trees - Giant Horse tails - Tree Ferns: o Huge plant o Comes all the way from the carboniferous (Cycads) Evolution of Plant Vascular Tissues : (perfected it in Carboniferous) - Tracheids : connection between 2 cells is not complete intact cellulose wall (filter) o Secondary cell wall – lignin (re-enforcing structure for vessels) Maintains the integrity of plant o Lignified (above) - Perforated end Wall: lignin (however cellulose wall is complete) - Becomes perfected in large tree like structures in carboniferous - Waxy surface on wall to prevent water loss Spores Vs. Seeds : Homosporous : - Plant that makes only one type of spore - Spores that have the same appearance (female and male look the same) - Gametophyte that develops from homosporous spores can produce both the sperm and egg (bisexual) Heterosporous : (Gymnosperm and Angiosperm) – seed plants (2 different types of spores) - Spores that are different, going to be either spores or eggs - Microsporangia : (2n) (male gametophyte) – protected inside pollen grain o Make small spores Microspore ; sperm (packaged in 4’s – meiotic cells) o sperm, when fused with egg is completely protected and has nutrients and can develop POLLEN : is a travelling, protected, encased male gametophyte - Megasporangium : (2n) (female gametophyte) – protected inside archegonium o Make BIG spores (egg) o Megaspore: female spore (n) o huge, filled with nutrients, sessile, eggs, inside parent plant - Gymnosperms : (Conifers) – o Create Seeds :
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Carboniferous and Permian Baby sporophyte sits inside nutritive tissue Miniature embryonic sporopyte Is the structure that forms when an ovule matures o All gymnosperm are wind pollinating (the males) o Male cones appear once a year disintegrate quickly, covered in pollen to be released o Female cone at the top of the tree (separation avoids self-fertilization) 2 eggs inside 2 sperm will fertilize (occur in pairs) Scales open to environment to let spores fertilize eggs – close when pollen grain has entered o Pollen Tube: A cell that grows through the megasporangium by invasive growth and carries the non- motile sperm to the egg Ovule: - Egg that develops inside the gametophyte which is retained in the megasporangial tissue - When fertilized becomes a seed Lignin : - Hydrophobic (benzene and aromatic rings) o No surface tension, adhesion with container - Indigestible (keratin – resistant to digestion) o Cross-linking makes it indigestible (aquatic event) o Fungi ONLY ones that will digest lignin - Bacterial and fungal ligninases - Toxic -
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Final Exam BIO1130 - Carboniferous_and_Permian -...

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