CHM1311 - Lecture(6)

CHM1311 - Lecture(6) - Gases Ch. 6 Petrucci 1 Gases Gases...

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1 Gases Gases Ch. 6 Petrucci Ch. 6 Petrucci
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2 Gases Gases have three characteristics we need to be able to accommodate in any theory of gases we use: Uniformly fill any container Mix completely with any other gas Exert pressure on its surroundings
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3 Pressure of Gases Pressure is defined as the force applied per unit area: force area Pressure = Common Units of Pressure: Pascals, Pa = Newton/meter 2 = N/m 2 (1 Newton = 1 kg m/s 2 ) Standard Atmospheric Pressure = 101.325 kPa = 1 atmosphere (atm) = 760 torr (mm Hg)
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4 Manometers For determining the pressure of an enclosed gas If the liquid level on both sides of the manometer is the same, P gas = P bar P gas = Pressure of gas in chamber P bar = Barometric (or atmospheric) pressure
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5 ca 1 atm thermocouple ~ 10 -3 atm ionization ~ 10 -9 atm
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The physical behavior of “ideal gases” can be described by a set of laws: These laws were discovered independently, and eventually combined into one equation of state: The Ideal Gas Law: PV = nRT 6 Gas Laws Boyle’s Law: V α 1/P (T = constant) Charles’s Law: V α T (P = constant) Avogadro’s Hypothesis: V α n T and P are constant
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7 Ideal Gas Law The ideal gas law is an EQUATION OF STATE for a gas. It relates the initial and final states of a system, no matter how the change is carried out. R = proportionality constant (called the gas constant ) = 0.08206 L atm K -1 mol -1 = 8.314 J K -1 mol -1 P = pressure in atm V = volume in Litres n = moles T = temperature in Kelvin PV = nRT This function holds closely at P < 1 atm
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8 A small gas bubble rises from the bottom of a lake, where the temperature and pressure are 8 o C and 6.4 atm, to the water’s surface, where the temperature is 25 o C and pressure is 1.0 atm. Calculate the final volume (in mL) of the bubble if its initial volume was 2.1 mL.
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This note was uploaded on 01/17/2010 for the course CHM BIO1130 taught by Professor Houseman during the Fall '09 term at University of Ottawa.

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CHM1311 - Lecture(6) - Gases Ch. 6 Petrucci 1 Gases Gases...

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