CHM1311 - Lecture(11)

CHM1311 - Lecture(11) - Acids and Bases Petrucci, Chapter...

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1 Acids and Bases Acids and Bases Petrucci, Chapter 16 Petrucci, Chapter 16
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2 Household acids Household acids C 6 H 8 O 8 C 2 H 4 O 2 HCl H 2 CO 3 H 3 PO 4
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3 Household bases Household bases NaOCl NaOH K 2 CO 3 NaHCO 3
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4 Arrhenius Definition of Arrhenius Definition of Acids and Bases Acids and Bases Arrhenius Acids: Substances that ionize in water to produce H + ions. HCl (aq) H + (aq) + Cl - (aq) Arrhenius Bases: Substances that ionize in water to produce OH - ions. NaOH (aq) Na + (aq) + OH - (aq) Arrhenius Arrhenius acid acid Arrhenius Arrhenius base base The Arrhenius definition has some short-comings. So we use the Bronsted definition more often…
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5 Bronsted Definition of Bronsted Definition of Acids and Bases Acids and Bases Bronsted Acid : A proton (H + )_______ Bronsted Base: A proton (H + )_________ H + contains no electrons and no neutrons. It only contains 1 proton! So we often refer to H + as a proton.
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6 The H + ion does NOT just fall off! It is transferred to water (which acts as the base), to form the hydronium ion, H 3 O + . e.g. HCl (aq) H + (aq) + Cl - (aq) Abbreviated chemical equations are often used to show the ionization of acids: The above equation is just short-hand for the actual reaction, which is the following: HCl (aq) + H 2 O (l) H 3 O + (aq) + Cl - (aq) Bronsted Bronsted Acid Acid (donates proton) (donates proton) Bronsted Bronsted Base Base (accepts proton) (accepts proton) Hydronium Hydronium Ion Ion Every acid/base reaction involves both an acid and a base .
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7 Bronsted Definition of Bronsted Definition of Acids and Bases Acids and Bases Whenever an acid donates a proton, there must be a base present to accept the proton. Every acid/base reaction involves both an acid and a base . HCl (aq) + H 2 O (l) Bronsted Bronsted Acid Acid (donates proton) (donates proton) Bronsted Bronsted Base Base (accepts proton) (accepts proton) NH 3 (aq) + H 2 O (l) Bronsted Bronsted Base Base (accepts a (accepts a proton) proton) Bronsted Bronsted Acid Acid (donates (donates a proton) a proton)
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8 Strong Acids Strong Acids Strong acids are completely ionized in water (they are strong electrolytes): H H NO 3 (aq) + H 2 O (l) In solution, there is no HNO 3 present. Only H 3 O + and NO 3 - are present. Example 1: Example 2: H H Cl (aq) + H 2 O (l) In solution, there is no HCl present. Only H 3 O + and Cl - are present. acid acid acid acid base base base base
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Weak Acids Weak Acids Weak acids do not undergo complete ionization. (At equilibrium, some reactant will remain in solution.) Ionization of weak acids is shown with a bi-directional arrow to indicate that ionization is reversible. Example 1: CH 3 COO H H (aq) + H 2 O (l) At equilibrium, some CH 3 COOH is still present. Example 2:
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CHM1311 - Lecture(11) - Acids and Bases Petrucci, Chapter...

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