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Unformatted text preview: Pyschology – Condensed Notes Two Branches in Psychology:- Clinical (Helps with behaviour problems)- Experimental (researches behaviour and nervous system) Early Pyschology:- Dualism: o Humans consisted of a material body and an immaterial soul o Descartes said body drives most behaviours, soul only controls thought o Descartes called nerves as “tubes” or “threads”- Phrenology: o Franz Josef Gall, suggested that each part of the brain controls a specific emotion o Proposed that you can tell a person’s intelligence and abilities from the contours of their head- Structuralism: o Breaking down of conscious experiences into basic elements o Used introspection to determine how the mind worked- Empiricism: o Mind is a “blank slate” o Suggested that experience is everything o Law of Assiciation by Contiguity : As one experiences things in time, they are more likely to bind them together as a concept. Example, child first exposed to apple will think small, round, crispy, sweet. Next time you show the baby the apple, it will think of the same description of the apple.- Nativism: o Some Knowledge or rules are inborn in humans. o Says we have innate knowledge that prepares us for more. “Born with readiness” o Priori knowledge, Posteriori knowledge Post experiences that help one to interpret different situations- Behaviourism: o Focuses on observable behaviour, NOT mental processes o Suggested behaviours develop through consequences Positive consequence - > Behaviour increases Negative consequence - > Behaviour decreases Cognitive Revolution- Behaviourism was abandoned because it did not include mental processes - Brought psychology to a stage where it was acceptable to study mental processes, to do so in scientific manner- Psychology: Study of behaviour and mental processes Scientific Methods in Psychology 1. Formulate a theory o Testable set of ideas that can explain the phenomenon of interest 2. Formulate a hypothesis o A specific prediction about how the variables in question are associated (has to be testable to prove it wrong) o Operational Definitions: specific explanations of a behaviour or variable in our experiment (measurable quantities that we are able to describe) ex. Time taken to count backwards from 100 by four 3. Select a research method o Replication and repetition is the essence of a research study It usually involves different participants in different situations, to see if finds extend to others 4. Data Collection (Collect Data..aha no shatt) Pyschology – Condensed Notes 5. Data Analysis o If the proposed hypothesis is not supported by data analysis or collected data, then you must go back and formulate a new hypothesis and start over o If data collected and analyzed supports hypothesis, repeat data collection to reduce errors 6. Report findings o Report findings to yoooo maamaa 7. Revise theory o Back and forth process (goes all the way back to #1 – Formulate a theory) Advantages to Scientific Method:...
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This note was uploaded on 01/17/2010 for the course PSY psy1101 taught by Professor Haddad during the Fall '09 term at University of Ottawa.
- Fall '09