PSY1101 - Final - MOTIVATION What is Motivation A...

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MOTIVATION What is Motivation? - A need/desire that energizes behavior and directs it toward a goal o Necessary (physiological) o Desirable (cognitive) Theories of Motivation : Instincts: - Behaviour that is unlearned, complex, fixed throughout the species - Not taught do it instinctively - Imprinting: o If goose egg hatches First moving thing they see is what they will IMPRINT as they’re mother o Describes instinctive behaviour - Rooting Response: o Appears at birth (around 3-4 months) o Stroke infants face, turn towards finger and open mouth o Adaptive reflex baby breast fed – needs to turn to breast and open mouth - Disgust Instinct: o Prevent us from getting disease or what we think will give us a disease o If we think it will give us disease therefore more disgusting Drive Reduction Theory: - Homeostasis: maintenance of a steady internal state (aim of drive reduction theory) o Driven by hormones maintain temperature, internal state, hunger, anxiety levels, sex drive, etc. - Drive: o An aroused state that occurs because of a physiological need - Need: (push) o A lack of deprivation that energizes the drive to reduce that need SLEEP TIRED GO TO SLEEP - Incentives (pull): o Positive or negative stimuli that motivates behaviour - Need + Incentive Strong Drive - Ex. Sleep + comfy bed really tired go to sleep sooner - Ex. Sleep + wet sleeping bag not as tired go to sleep later Optimum Arousal : - Curiosity driven behaviors - Too little or too much stimulation can motivate people to seek OPTIMUM level of
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- Lack of stimulation leads to boredom - Too much stimulation leads to stress anxiety Maslow’s Hierarchy: (Hierarchy of Motives) - Need to achieve lower needs FIRST to achieve higher needs - Can overcome hierarchy (Hunger Strike) – Ghandi - Cross – Cultural Effects on subjective ratings of well-being o Developing Countries – financial satisfaction o Wealthier Countries – Home life satisfaction Hunger: ( If hunger is not met) Physiological consequences : - Less active - Weight loss Psychological consequences : - Obsessed with food - Lose interest in other activities (sex, social activites, etc.) What affects Hunger?: - Physiological Factors: o Stomach : Contraction when hungry People with stomachs removed still feel hungry o Brain : When glucose level is low we feel hungry Hypothalamus monitors hunger hormone levels Lateral hypothalamus (sides of hypothalamus) leads to hunger (destroying it Ventromedial hypothalamus stops hunger and eating o Chemistry : Blood glucose : when low hungry! Insulin     s ecret e d by p a ncre a s d ecre a s e s glucos e by proc e ssing it Orexin : rele as e d by lat er al hypoth ala m us wh e n glucos e drops Triggers hung er (rats e a t tons wh e n given it) Ghrelin : s ecret e d by e m pty sto m a c h
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Triggers hunger (hunger hormone) Leptin     : protein secreted by fat cells Inhibits hunger, increases metabolism
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This note was uploaded on 01/17/2010 for the course PSY psy1101 taught by Professor Haddad during the Fall '09 term at University of Ottawa.

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PSY1101 - Final - MOTIVATION What is Motivation A...

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