Psyche Definitions - Psyche Final Book Definitions Prologue...

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Psyche Final – Book Definitions Prologue: The Story of Psychology Empiricism: The view that (a) knowledge comes from experience via the senses, and (b) science flourishes through observation and experiment. Structuralism: An early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind. Functionalism: A school of psychology that focused on how mental and behavioural processes function – how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish. Psychology: The science of behaviour and mental processes. Nature-Nurture Issue: The longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviours. Natural Selection: The principle that among the range of inherent trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations. Basic Research: Pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base. Applied Research: Scientific study that aims to solve practical problems. Clinical Psychology: A branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders. Psychiatry: A branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical (for example drug) treatments as well as psychological therapy.
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Chapter 1: Thinking Critically with Psychological Science Hindsight Bias: The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it. (Also known as the I- knew-it-all-along phenomenon) Critical Thinking: Thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions. Theory: An explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations. Hypothesis: A testable prediction, often implied by a theory. Operational Definition: A statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables. For example, intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures. Replication: Repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances. Case Study: An observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles. Survey: A technique for ascertaining the self-reported attributes or behaviours of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them. False Consensus Effect: The tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviours. Population:
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Psyche Definitions - Psyche Final Book Definitions Prologue...

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