Ch11 - CHAPTER 11: Endocrinology K. Wells VPHY3100:...

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CHAPTER 11: Endocrinology K. Wells VPHY3100: Elements of Physiology College Vet. Med.
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Wells/VPHY3100 Lecture Outline Introduction to endocrinology Pancreas Insulin Glucagon Hypothalamus Releasing hormones Inhibiting hormones Pituitary gland Anterior pituitary GH, TSH, ACTH, FSH, LH, prolactin Posterior pituitary ADH Oxytocin Adrenal gland Adrenal medulla Epinephrine Norepinephrine Adrenal cortex Glucocorticoids Mineralocorticoids Sex steroids Thyroid gland Thyroid hormone (T3, T4) Calcitonin
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Wells/VPHY3100 Extracellular Signaling Mechanisms Neurotransmission Local signaling Autocrine signaling Paracrine signaling Endocrine signaling
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Wells/VPHY3100 Endocrinology The study of endocrine glands/tissue, the hormones they release, and their effects on target tissues Hormones are carried via the blood Hormones regulate body metabolism, growth, and reproduction Table 11.1
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Wells/VPHY3100 Hormones Inactive hormone precursor molecules: prohormones & prehormones (a.k.a. preprohormones) The nervous & endocrine systems overlap in terms of chemical transmitters and receptor proteins Most target tissues are regulated by multiple hormones; downstream effects may be complementary or antagonistic Tissue response is dependent on plasma concentrations of hormones Physiological ranges --> “sensitization” or “upregulation” Pharmacological ranges --> “desensitization” or “downregulation”
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Wells/VPHY3100 Classification of Hormones CHEMICAL STRUCTURES Amino acid derivatives Epinephrine & norepinephrine (adrenal medulla) Thyroid hormones Melatonin (pineal gland) Hypothalamic & pituitary hormones Parathyroid hormone Steroids Corticosteroids (adrenal cortex) Sex steroids (gonads) PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Hydrophilic hormones interact with cell-surface receptors at target tissues All peptide & protein hormones Epinephrine & norepinephrine Hydrophobic (or lipophilic) hormones interact with intracellular receptors at target tissues Steroid hormones Thyroid hormones
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Cellular Receptors - Act through intracellular 2nd messengers (cAMP, Ca 2+ , kinases) - Insulin, growth factors - Act through intracellular 2nd messengers (cAMP, Ca 2+ , kinases) - Epinephrine, norepinephrine - Act as a transcription factor in the nucleus - Steroids, thyroid hormones
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Wells/VPHY3100 Lecture Outline Introduction to endocrinology Pancreas Insulin Glucagon Hypothalamus Releasing hormones Inhibiting hormones Pituitary gland Anterior pituitary GH, TSH, ACTH, FSH, LH, prolactin Posterior pituitary ADH Oxytocin Adrenal gland Adrenal medulla Epinephrine Norepinephrine Adrenal cortex Glucocorticoids Mineralocorticoids Sex steroids Thyroid gland Thyroid hormone (T3, T4) Calcitonin
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Ch11 - CHAPTER 11: Endocrinology K. Wells VPHY3100:...

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