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8_Standard%20State

# 8_Standard%20State - Standard States Most state variables...

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1 Most state variables cannot be measured absolutely. One can only determine their relative values. V/V ref , T, P, H, U, S, etc. Examples: L = ( L/L ref )L ref => calculate V T = T + T ref S = S + S ref To determine the values of T, P, H, etc., we need to know a reference value or a standard. As a result, Standard States 1. Weight and height. Reference Values of Physical Quantitities The standard kilogram housed at the International Bureau of Weights and Standards near Paris. 90% platinum and 10% iridium. US National meter #27, a copy of international meter made of platinum and iridium in France. It is housed at the National Institute of Standard and Technology Museum. 2. Pressure - Room pressure: in the clinic - Vacuum pressure: in thermodynamics 3. Temperature - Temperature of triple point of water at P = 1 atm (for 0 C) - Temperature of gases as V 0 at any P (for K)

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