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Unformatted text preview: Communication Communication Communication Skills Communication “Communication skills” refers to the ability Communication
or capacity to realize communicative goals during the course of an interaction. during iinterpretive and symbolic resources to nterpretive achieve certain social outcomes. achieve Influenced by motivation. Influenced Measuring Communication Skills Skills Comparing communicative intentions with Comparing
the results. the Communicative Behavior- refer to verbal Communicative and nonverbal actions that the speaker emits and are observable to others emits A simple model of communication simple
Noises & Interference Sender’s Intentions (private, & known only by the sender) Sender’s Style of Encoding Sender’s Actions (public, & observable by anyone) Noises & Interference Effect on Listener (private, & known only by The listener) Listener’s Style of Decoding Interpersonal Gap – when a sender’s Interpersonal
intentions differ Gaps related to present & future Gaps
dissatisfaction Functions of Nonverbal Communication Nonverbal Provides information Regulates interaction Defining nature of relationship Social control Presentational function Affect management Service-task function Nonverbal Communication Nonverbal Components Facial expression Display rules - cultural norms that dictate what emotions are Display
appropriate appropriate Gazing behavior look-speak ratio Body language Touch- men tend to touch more than women Interpersonal distance intimate zone, personal zone, social zone, public zone Paralanguage variations in voices (rhythm, pitch, loudness, & rate) Nonverbal Communication Nonverbal Sensitivity Predicts satisfaction ??? Skill deficits Skill Sex differences Women better encoders and decoders Women smile more Women display lower dominance ratios Women’s postures are less open & more symmetrical Verbal Communication Verbal Self disclosure - process of revealing Self
personal information to someone else personal Theory of social penetration - Relationships Theory develop as communication systematically changes changes Depth Breadth Reciprocity Taboo topics Too many may be a problem Secret tests Triangle test, Endurance test, Separation test Verbal Communication Verbal Is Social penetration always gradual??? Stranger on the plane phenomenon Love at first sight Boom and bust Disclosure and satisfaction Verbal Communication Verbal Gender differences Gender Topic of conversation- women are more likely Topic to gossip and come to negative conclusions about people through gossip. Styles of conversation Self-disclosure Instrumentality vs. expressivity Instrumental traits – task-oriented Expressive traits – social & emotional skills Androgynous Dysfunctional Communication Dysfunctional Miscommunication Saying what they mean Kitchen sink Off-beam Hearing each other Mind reading Interrupt Yes-butting Cross-complaining Negative affect The four horsemen Criticism Contempt Defensiveness Stonewalling Demand/withdraw These are great These
predictors of marital dissolution & unhappiness unhappiness What the “Four Horsemen” Predicted What Gottman (1994) Gottman Anger in marital interaction DID NOT Anger predict divorce, BUT “The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse” DID reliably predict divorce. reliably Wives affect was more predictive than Wives husbands. husbands. Findings… Findings… Negative start-up by the wife, refusal of Negative
the husband to accept influence from his wife all were found to be predictive of divorce. divorce. Marriages that were happy and stable had Marriages softened start-up by the wife, & the husband accepted influence from her. husband Fixing Communication Problems Problems Saying what we mean Behavior description I-statements and XYZ statements Active listening Paraphrasing Perception checking Being polite Time outs Time Respect and validation Demand Withdraw Labels Demand Pursuer-Distancer (Fogarty, 1976) The pursuer chases the distancer, who retreats Rejection-Intrusion (Napier, 1978) An “abandoned” partner clasps tightly for security An while the “imprisoned” mate retreats while Demanding-Withdrawn (Wile, 1981) The couple struggles with the withdrawal of one The partner and the pressure for contact by the other partner Gender Differences and Satisfaction Using Demand-Withdraw Using Dissatisfied wives complained of their husbands Dissatisfied withdrawal. Dissatisfied husbands complained of their wives Dissatisfied criticism, complaints and emotionality. criticism, Greater emotional expressiveness in women Greater withdrawal from conflict by men. Women were conflict-confronting, but Men were Women conflict-avoiding. conflict-avoiding. Women generate more negative affect and behavior Women than men do. than Who’s Issue is it? Who’s Both husbands and wives were more likely to be Both
demanding when discussing a change they wanted. Both husbands and wives were more likely to Both withdraw when discussing a change that their partner wanted. partner Men were more withdrawn than women overall, Men but women were not more demanding overall than men. than Christensen and Heavey (1990) Communication Skills-Deficit Model of Marital Distress Model Assumes that deficits in communication skills lead to Assumes
dissatisfaction. dissatisfaction. distressed couples often are lacking in a variety of distressed communication skills. communication Couples who manage their conflict unskillfully are Couples expected to be less satisfied with their interactions and their relationships. and Burleson’s Four Communication Skills Skills Communication Effectiveness Involves producing messages that have their intended effect and Involves is one of the most basic skills of message production. is Perceptual Accuracy Comprehending correctly the intentions underlying another’s Comprehending message and is a core skill of message reception. message Predictive Accuracy Correctly anticipating how one’s message will affect another and Correctly is essential to engaging in coordinated interaction is Interpersonal Cognitive Complexity Structural Assessment of the capacity to process social Structural information and taps a fundamental aspect of social perception skills. skills. ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/17/2010 for the course FSHD 237 taught by Professor Payne during the Spring '09 term at University of Arizona- Tucson.
- Spring '09