(2) Computer Structure (Sina)

(2) Computer Structure (Sina) - Basic computer and...

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Unformatted text preview: Basic computer and programming concepts Sina Meraji Fall, 2009 Fall 2009 Computing for Engineers 2 Computer Software (program) A program is a set of step-by-step instructions that directs the computer to do the tasks you want it to do and produce the results you want. In what form? E.g., Windows XP, Microsoft Office (Word, PowerPoint, Excel), Computer Virus , Call of Duty, Adobe Photoshop, Yahoo Messenger Fall 2009 Computing for Engineers 3 Different natural languages How are you? Wie geht es Ihnen? Comment allez-vous? And more Fall 2009 Computing for Engineers 4 Different programming languages C C++ Fortran Assembly (Intel8086, Motorola68000) Java C# And more Machine language Fall 2009 Computing for Engineers 5 Choosing a language Suitable for your tasks Satellite communication (speed) Assembly Education Basic, Pascal Business Cobol Web development Javascript, Java Scientific calculation Fortran Real programmer in general purpose C Fall 2009 Computing for Engineers 6 Levels of language Machine Language (e.g., 01001110000) Assembly language (Intel: 8086, Motorola: 68000, Sun: Sparc) High level language (e.g., Fortran, C, Cobol) Very high level language (e.g., Java, C++, SQL) Natural language Speed Easiness for human , i.e., more flexibility, easier to be implemented, maintained Fall 2009 Computing for Engineers 7 Low Level Programming Programmers in the late 1940s had to use binary numbers to encode the instructions and the data the way the machine represented them (as switches) This was very time consuming and error prone so written mnemonic codes were created. Programs were written using these codes and then translated into binary by hand Fall 2009 Computing for Engineers 8 Assembler The mnemonic names for machine instructions were developed into a language called assembly language Soon programs were written to convert these mnemonic symbols to binary sequences that could be loaded into the machine memory directly These programs are called assemblers Fall 2009 Computing for Engineers 9 Assembler Example Evaluate the expression f = (g + h) - (i + j) The first step is to use load instruction to transfer values stored in memory to registers g, h, I and j Load and Store instructions are part of the assembly language and allow transferring data values between memory and registers Fall 2009 Computing for Engineers 10 Assembler Example Evaluate the expression f = (g + h) - (i + j) Once the values are in registers g, h, I and j we can compute the result....
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(2) Computer Structure (Sina) - Basic computer and...

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