Output & Multidimensional Arrays (Sina)

Output & Multidimensional Arrays (Sina) - File Input /...

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File Input / Output Multidimensional Arrays Sina Meraji Fall 2009
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Example X format READ ± X is equal to 1X which means 1 space ± The READ statement counts the spaces in the input but does not use them in assigning the variables ± The READ statement ignores entries as many as nX PROGRAM XFormat IMPLICIT NONE INTEGER :: a,b READ (*, (I2,X,I2) )a ,b WRITE (*,*) a = ,a, and b = ,b END PROGRAM XFormat input 12 # 45 12345 # 12 # 45 ## 12 # 45 A=12 B=45 A=12 B=45 A=1 B=4 A=0 B=2 output
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Example Free format READ ± Using comma and space one can assign numerous variables with one READ ± Automatically detects (and verifies) the input type ± If there is a mismatch between input type and the variable being used, an error message will be printed ± Multiple spaces between entries are allowed but multiple commas are not. PROGRAM FreeFormat IMPLICIT NONE INTEGER :: a,b READ (*,*) a,b WRITE (*,*) a = ,a, and b = ,b END PROGRAM FreeFormat input 123 # 456 123,456 123 #### 456 123,,456 A=123 B=456 A=123 B=456 A=123 B=456 A=123 B= garbage! output
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Review n / Vertical n X Horizontal Positioning A w Reading / Writing CHARACTERs L w Reading / Writing LOGICALs E w.d Exponential form F w.d Decimal form Reading / Writing REALs I w Reading / Writing INTEGERS Edit Description Purpose
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This class ± Finishing INPUT / OUTPUT ± Note about precision problem ± Multidimensional Arrays
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Using Files ± Sometimes we need to read values which are generated by other programs such as spreadsheets or word ± These values are usually stored in a file ± This makes reading large data sets easy ± Likewise, we would like to write processed values to other files to be used by other programs
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File INPUT and OUTPUT ± READ ( * , * ) and WRITE ( * , * ) only reads from / writes to standard input (e.g. keyboard) / output (screen) ± To read from a file, we have to specify the name of the file and give the program some way of identifying it ± We use this identification to refer to the file in the program
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File INPUT and OUTPUT 3 Steps: 1. Open a file 2. Input / output using READ and WRITE READ : read data from the opened file WRITE : write data to the opened file 3. Close the file
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OPEN Syntax OPEN ( UNIT = N , FILE = “file name” ) An integer between 1 and 99 used as a reference to the file in the program. There are some reserved numbers like: Keyboard UNIT = 5
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Output & Multidimensional Arrays (Sina) - File Input /...

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