BIS104 Note2 - Lecture 2 Bio Sci 104 How are cells and cell...

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Lecture 2 1 Bio Sci 104 Winter 2010 How are cells and cell function studied? (Part I) A. Over view of cell culture 1. Cells can be isolated from a tissue suspension and separated into different types. 2. Some cell types can be grown in culture in appropriate media. Cell culture provides methods of studying cells over time, and allows manipulation of conditions, studies of single cell phenotypes etc. a. Bacteria were the first organisms for which culture conditions were defined. Bacterial culture is generally simpler than that of eukaryotic cells; bacteria can make many required substances themselves from simple precursors, and are not subject to complex regulation of cell growth displayed by multi-cellular organisms. However, to date, many bacteria still could not be cultured in laboratories. b. Animal and plant cells - more complex culture conditions: require externally supplied, complex organic molecules for growth- s ugars, amino acids, salts, vitamins . But frequently, even these are not sufficient- cells stay alive, but don't replicate. Something is still missing…. the growth factors (e.g insulin etc). (particularly important for multicellular organisms). Many kinds of cells cannot yet be cultured successfully. Those that do grow in culture may display some abnormal phenotypes. c. Primary cell culture vs cell lines: Primary cell culture refers to cultures prepared directly from the tissues without cell proliferation in vitro. Some of these cells can be removed from the Petri-dish and made to proliferate to form secondary culture. Cell lines: most cell lines retain the ability to divide indefinitely if cultured properly. Some cell lines are derived from cancer cells (carrying activated telomerase or oncogenes). Some cell lines are normal, for example, human embryonic stem cell lines that can divide indefinitely yet retain the ability to differentiate to any part of the body. B. Cell and molecule fractionation
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BIS104 Note2 - Lecture 2 Bio Sci 104 How are cells and cell...

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