DeWoody 2005 - Special Section MOLECULAR APPROACHES TO THE...

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Special Section MOLECULAR APPROACHES TO THE STUDY OF PARENTAGE, RELATEDNESS, AND FITNESS: PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS FOR WILD ANIMALS J. ANDREW D EWOODY, 1 Department of Forestry & Natural Resources, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1159, USA Abstract: Historically, novel molecular techniques have been developed by the human genetics community, adapt- ed for nonhuman organisms by evolutionary biologists, and gradually adopted by the wildlife and fisheries com- munities. Today, evolutionary biologists routinely rely on molecules to assess mate choice, dispersal, parentage, sex ratios, and other population parameters. All in all, the use of molecular genetic markers has revolutionized popu- lation biology—human and otherwise. Prescient wildlife and fisheries biologists have recognized the importance of this revolution and are now using molecular genetic tools to evaluate captive or supplemental breeding pro- grams, population dynamics, stocking strategies, and taxonomic issues. Herein, I explore the use of molecular genetic markers to address questions in wildlife biology and management. Specifically, I review how—among other topics—cannibalism, sex-ratios, dispersal, enumeration, genotoxicology, hybridization, and genetically modified organisms can be evaluated in the context of parentage, relatedness, and fitness. As science becomes more inte- grative and complex, it is easy to envision a future where collaborations between geneticists (who may not have the expertise to obtain the field samples) and wildlife biologists (who may not have the expertise and/or facilities to obtain the genotypes) are common and serve to answer both fundamental and applied questions. JOURNAL OF WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT 69(4):1400–1418; 2005 Key words: cannibalism, dispersal, evolution, genetics, genotoxicology, hybridization, kinship, mate choice, repro- ductive success, transgenic. 1400 Novel molecular techniques usually arise within the human genetics community and slowly filter into ecology and evolutionary biology, wildlife management, and fisheries management. Evolu- tionary biologists have been using molecular (i.e., DNA) markers for over a decade, and recently the fisheries community has taken full advantage of the DNA tools at their disposal. For example, the ichthyology literature is now replete with molecu- lar assessments of taxonomy (reviewed in Turner 1999 ), genetic diversity and population structure (Carvalho and Hauser 1998 ), and biological parentage (DeWoody and Avise 2001 , Avise et al. 2002 ). Further, fisheries biologists have carefully considered the genetics of founders prior to stock- ing (Hedrick et al. 2000 , Page et al. 2004 ) or sup- plemental breeding (Barton and Scribner 2004 , Fiumera et al. 2004 ). Wildlife biologists are faced with many of these same issues, and herein I focus on how molecular assessments of parentage, re- latedness, and quantitative genetics can influence wildlife management.
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This note was uploaded on 01/18/2010 for the course BIO SCI 104 taught by Professor Lin during the Spring '09 term at UC Davis.

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DeWoody 2005 - Special Section MOLECULAR APPROACHES TO THE...

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