204_Lecture_2 - LIN204H1S English Grammar Week 2 Todays...

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1 January 15, 2009 LIN204H1S English Grammar Week 2 Today’s goal: - To understand distribution and function of nouns and Noun Phrases (NPs) in English - To be able to write the internal structure of NPs in tree diagram January 15, 2009 Admin - Next week, a guest lecturer, Kyumin Kim, will replace me. - I’m away. - Office hours on Jan 21 are cancelled. January 15, 2009 Review of week 1 z We take descriptive approach to grammar study. z There is no such notion as ‘bad’ grammar or ‘good’ grammar; every grammar is equally treated. z All sentences created by native speakers and accepted as grammatical by them are grammatical. z Dialectal variation show structural differences. z Standard dialect is a dialect expected in public discourse. January 15, 2009 Several linguistic questions were raised: z Why some sequences of words are grammatical and not others. z How an infinite number of sentences can be generated from a finite number or words. z Why sentences have the meanings that they have, and not other conceivable meanings. z How children acquire the complex computational system without being explicitly taught. Review of week 1 January 15, 2009 Some useful concepts for answering these questions. Review of week 1 - Syntactic categories, or parts of speech: Noun, Verb, Adjective, Determiner, Preposition, Adverb, Conjunction - Constituency: a chunk of words that group together syntactically January 15, 2009 Tests for identifying syntactic categories - Meaning? – No - Distribution - Morphology (inflectional, derivational) Review of week 1
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2 January 15, 2009 Nouns “[T]hey name a person, place, thing, or idea” (p. 22) Is this a reliable test to distinguish nouns from other parts of speech? January 15, 2009 Nouns No (as Barry also says). walk in: I took several walks. I walked quickly. January 15, 2009 Nouns Distribution and morphology are reliable ways to identify nouns (or any other syntactic categories) We’ll talk about distribution later. So, morphology. Inflectional morphology Derivational morphology January 15, 2009 Diagnostics for nouns in inflectional morphology Nouns inflect for number and possession Number categories: Singular – one Plural – more than one (Cf. dual – two, a pair) Regular marking: Singular: -Ø desk pie peach Plural: -s desks pies peaches January 15, 2009 Number marking in nouns Irregular marking (i) vowel change foot-feet mouse-mice (ii) -Ø for plural deer-deer (iii) borrowings from Latin or Greek syllabus-syllabi, criterion-criteria, formula-formulae (iv) other changes ox-oxen, child-children (i), (ii), (iv) –residues of regular patterns in earlier English January 15, 2009 Generalization Generalization of regular patterns syllabuses, instead of syllabi Other words?
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3 January 15, 2009 Possession marking Suffix: -’s Is the pronunciation different from the suffix for number? Number:
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This note was uploaded on 01/19/2010 for the course LINGUISTIC LIN204 taught by Professor Mayami during the Winter '09 term at University of Toronto- Toronto.

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204_Lecture_2 - LIN204H1S English Grammar Week 2 Todays...

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