204_Lecture_3 - LIN204H1S English Grammar Todays goal: - To...

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1 January 22, 2009 LIN204H1S English Grammar Today’s goal: - To finish up NPs (verbal nouns) - To understand the distribution and function of verbs and Verb Phrases (VPs) in English - To be able to represent the internal structure of VPs and sentences in English in tree diagrams - To understand and be able to identify constituency using tests January 22, 2009 Reminder – Homework #1 - Homework #1 is due next week in lecture. - Homework will be posted by this coming Saturday. Please print it and do it at home, turn in the original hard copy. - For the policy on homework (e.g., submission, plagiarism), read the syllabus. January 22, 2009 Verbal nouns and NPs Verbal nouns: Nouns that are related to verbs but pattern with other nouns syntactically Gerunds Infinitives January 22, 2009 Gerunds Gerunds: derived from verbs: verb + -ing His laughing annoyed her. All that coughing disturbed the musicians. Determiners accompany the gerunds. Æ Gerunds are nouns. January 22, 2009 Gerundive phrases Gerundive phrases: NPs with gerunds as the head Gerundive phrases pattern with other NPs. Subject: His laughing annoyed her. Direct object: She resented his laughing like a hyena. (Gerundive phrases can include modifiers.) Complement: The thing that bothers me most is his laughing like a hyena. January 22, 2009 Infinitival phrases Infinitives: to + verb Infinitival phrases: NPs with infinitives as the head
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2 January 22, 2009 Infinitival phrases Infinitival phrases pattern like other NPs. Subject: To give up now would be foolish. Direct object: Everyone desires to live in peace. Complement: His first instinct was to run away. January 22, 2009 Clause Recall that a simple sentence, or a clause, consists of two parts, the subject and the predicate. You arrived. Ron ate a carrot. The pink giraffe on the table handed me a paperclip. The motorcycle that my father gave to my brother on his birthday with a white scarf that was made by an English man a long time ago killed him on the very next day. January 22, 2009 Predicate Predicates are Verb Phrases, i.e., phrases that have a verb as the head. We’ll talk about VPs as a whole later. First, verbs. January 22, 2009 Diagnostics for the syntactic category verb Meaning? e.g., Verbs are words that describe the action of the sentence, or the mental state or perception of someone. January 22, 2009 Diagnostics for verbs Meaning? --Not entirely reliable (as always) walk in: verb: I walked quickly. noun: I took several walks. January 22, 2009 Verbs Distribution and morphology are reliable ways of identifying word categories. Distributional properties of verbs: - take NPs as subjects The children laughed at the clown. - some verbs also take direct objects; some verbs take direct and indirect objects (more about this later)
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3 January 22, 2009 Verbal inflection English verbs can be marked for tense, and for the person and the number of the subject (subject- verb agreement) Tense: grammatical representation of time reference (more about this next week) January 22, 2009 Tense inflection on verbs Verbs have potentially five different forms: - uninflected form E.g., take I can take your offer.
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204_Lecture_3 - LIN204H1S English Grammar Todays goal: - To...

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