204_Lecture_4 - LIN204H1S English Grammar Todays goal To...

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1 January 29, 2009 LIN204H1S English Grammar Today’s goal: - To understand and be able to represent intermediate level for phrases - To understand and be able to represent tense and aspect in English January 29, 2009 Supplementary reading for tense and aspect Read sections 7.1, 7.2, 7.4, 7.5, 7.6, 7.8, 7.9 and subsection 7.7.1 of: Kearns, Kate. (2000) Semantics . Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire, UK : Macmillan Press The entire chapter is posted as a pdf file on the course website. January 29, 2009 Online quiz Online quiz will become available on the course website (Blackboard) by this coming Saturday. The quiz is due Thursday Feb. 5, at 1 pm; it will become unavailable then. Make sure to do the quiz as soon as possible. No extension will be accepted under any circumstances. January 29, 2009 Note on number agreement from last week Number agreement is sometimes based on semantic number rather than morphological number: The committee {was, were} unable to come to an agreement. Cf. More than one person {has, *have} gotten this offer. Fewer than two people {*has, have} gotten this offer. January 29, 2009 Ambiguous sentences The woman saw the soldiers with the binoculars. Recall from week 1 that this sentence can be interpreted in two ways: (a) The woman used the binoculars to see the solders. (b) The woman saw the soldiers who had the binoculars. We can explain this ambiguity as coming from structural differences of these two sentences. January 29, 2009 The woman saw the soldiers with the binoculars. (a) ‘The woman used the binoculars to see the solders’. S NP VP D N V’ PP V NP P NP D N D N the woman saw the soldiers with the binoculars
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2 January 29, 2009 The woman saw the soldiers with the binoculars. (b) ‘The woman saw the soldiers who had the binoculars’. S NP VP D N V NP D N’ N PP P NP D N the woman saw the soldiers with the binoculars January 29, 2009 Meaning differences in terms of structural differences. The two VPs have different internal structures. (a) ‘The woman used the binoculars to see the solders’. S NP VP D N V’ PP V NP P NP D N D N the woman saw the soldiers with the binoculars (b) ‘The woman saw the soldiers who had the binoculars’. S NP VP D N V NP D N’ N PP P NP D N the woman saw the soldiers with the binoculars January 29, 2009 Binary-branching One assumption that makes the analysis we just saw possible is that trees are binary-branching (each node has two daughters), not ternary. Binary: VP V’ PP V NP P NP saw D N with D N the soldiers the binoculars *Ternary: VP V NP PP saw D N P NP the soldiers with D N the binoculars January 29, 2009 Binary-branching Binary: NP D N’ the N PP soldiers P NP with D N the binoculars *Ternary: NP D N PP the soldiers P NP with D N the binoculars January 29, 2009 X-bar level With binary-branching trees, there are constituents smaller than the XP but larger than the word: X’ level.
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