204_Lecture_5 - LIN204H1S English Grammar Todays goal: - To...

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1 February 5, 2009 LIN204H1S English Grammar Today’s goal: - To understand pronouns in English February 5, 2009 Homework There is homework due the beginning of next lecture (Feb. 12). This homework (homework #2) will be posted by this coming Saturday. February 5, 2009 Pronouns Pronouns are typically used to stand for an NP The elderly man sat on the bench until he was asked to leave. Pronouns are the head of an NP S NP VP pronoun V NP I like pronoun you February 5, 2009 Antecedent Antecedent: an NP that a pronoun refers to (a) The elderly man sat on the bench until he was asked to leave. (b) When she saw the mess, my mother called the police. (c) I hate to say it, but you didn’t pass the exam. (d) We should play badminton together. (the speaker and the addressee) (e) I’ve seen the woman who is eating the hotdog on the bench. February 5, 2009 Exercise What is the antecedent for the pronouns in the following sentences? (a) Ken bought a coat, but it doesn’t fit. (b) Although she doesn’t know it yet, Jon is taking Kate to the prom. February 5, 2009 Types of pronouns - Personal pronouns - Reflexive pronouns - Reciprocal pronouns - Demonstrative pronouns - Relative pronouns - Interrogative pronouns - Universal and indefinite pronouns
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2 February 5, 2009 Personal pronouns Morphology: personal pronouns are marked for number, person, gender and case group not including speaker or addressee they, them someone else she, he, it, him, her 3rd person group including addressee (but not speaker) you addressee you 2nd person group including speaker we, us speaker (including writer) I, me 1st person Plural Singular Number and person: February 5, 2009 Gender Subcategories: masculine, feminine and neuter In linguistics, the notion of gender is grammatical, not necessarily biological. In German, for example, inanimate nouns are either masculine, feminine or neuter. In French, they are either masculine or feminine: (a) Le livre est beau . ‘The book is beautiful.’ (‘book’ is masculine) (b) La carte est belle. ‘The card is beautiful.’ (‘card’ is feminine) February 5, 2009 Gender English used to have grammatical gender like German or French, but contemporary English no longer does. Contemporary English only distinguishes natural gender (i.e., biological sex) in the pronouns for animate nouns. (a) The elderly man sat on the bench until he was asked to leave. (b) The elderly woman sat on the bench until she was asked to leave. Inanimate nouns are not marked for gender: (c) The book on the table is annoying. We need to move it somewhere else. (d) They gave me a beautiful Christmas card. I liked it very much. February 5, 2009
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204_Lecture_5 - LIN204H1S English Grammar Todays goal: - To...

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