204_Lecture_6 - LIN204H1S English Grammar Today’s goal: -...

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Unformatted text preview: LIN204H1S English Grammar Today’s goal: - To understand adjectives, adverbs, prepositions and particles in English - Notes on midterm test Announcement TULCon: SLUGS (the Society of Linguistics Undergraduate Students) conference! http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/~slugs/?s=tulcon People can register online February 12, 2009 February 12, 2009 Adjectives - distribution Distributional properties: Adjectives occur in two types of syntactic positions - Attributive adjectives Adjectives can be used attributively when they precede a noun or modifies a noun in some way Attributive adjectives are a part of an NP I am a happy person. S NP VP N V NP I am D N’ a AdjP N Adj person happy Attributively Predicatively February 12, 2009 February 12, 2009 Predicat(iv)e adjectives Adjectives can be used predicatively when they: (i) follow a linking verb (e.g., be, become, look, seem, smell, feel, turn), describing some property of the subject of the sentence, i.e., as subject complement Our house seems empty. (ii) follow an object NP, describing the object NP, i.e., as object complement She judged the report inadequate. When adjectives are used predicatively, they are a part of the predicate. February 12, 2009 Adjectives – derivational morphology Some derivational suffixes: V Adj. -ive, -able/ible, detective, impressive, doable, explosive N Adj. -al, -ful, -ish national, emotional, beautiful, boyish (NB V-al N arrival; Adj-ish Adj tall-ish) Adj. -ly friendly, kindly (NB N-ly Adverb quickly) N February 12, 2009 1 Adjectives – derivational morphology Nation name + suffix adjective -ish: Spain - Spanish What other suffixes can you think of? Adjectives – derivational morphology Some derivational prefixes: Adj. Adj. un-, dis-, in/ir/il/imunhappy, dissatisfied, incompetent, irregular, illegal, impossible (NB un-V V undo; dis-V V disapprove) February 12, 2009 February 12, 2009 Adjectives – inflectional morphology Adjectives can be marked for degree: Comparative: -er Train is faster than car. Superlative: -est Plane is the fastest of all transportation means. Some have vowel change – historical residue old – elder - eldest Cf. old – older – oldest, tall – taller – tallest English used to have this pattern commonly e.g., strong – strenger – strengest February 12, 2009 Textbook (p. 105): The comparative form is used to compare two different nouns, the superlative to compare more than two (note again the dual-plural distinction). What do you think about these data? Pat and Paul are smarter than John and Joe. Edwin is the tallest of the two of them. February 12, 2009 Comparative/superlative To indicate comparative/superlative, not all adjectives take the suffixes –er/–est. One syllable roots, two syllable roots ending in ‘–y’ -er/-est Others (two syllable roots not ending in ‘y’, longer roots) periphrastic forms (i.e., formed by using a separate word, rather than by suffixation) with a preceding more (comparative)/most (superlative) (a) My cat is the cutest cat in the world. (b) My cat is the loveliest cat in the world. (c) My cat is the most beautiful cat in the world. February 12, 2009 Gradable and nongradable adjectives Some adjectives can be modified by intensifiers (e.g., very, quite, somewhat, exceedingly): He is very happy. (The adjective is gradable) Some cannot: *He is very married. (The adjective is nongradable) February 12, 2009 2 Adjective Phrases (AdjP) An Adjective Phrase (AdjP) has an adjective as the head. AdjPs minimally consist of an adjective. He is suspicious. An AdjP can contain various modifiers as well: Intensifiers He is very suspicious. PPs to the right of the head He is suspicious of doctors. Infinitival clauses to the right of the head He is too drunk to speak properly. February 12, 2009 He is suspicious. S NP VP N V AdjP he is Adj suspicious He is very suspicious. S NP VP N V AdjP he is Int. Adj very suspicious February 12, 2009 He is very suspicious of the doctors. S NP VP N V AdjP he is Int. Adj’ very Adj PP suspicious P NP of D N the doctors AdjPs There can be multiple instances of AdjPs in an NP: the big red house NP D the N’ AdjP Adj big N’ AdjP Adj red N house February 12, 2009 February 12, 2009 Ambiguity They are amusing children. Do you see two meanings for this sentence? Ambiguity They are amusing children. Do you see two meanings for this sentence? Meaning 1 (amusing is a verb): there are people who are amusing the children Meaning 2 (amusing is an adjective): the children are amusing February 12, 2009 February 12, 2009 3 They are amusing children. There are people who are amusing the children S NP VP N V VP they are V NP amusing N children The children are amusing S NP VP N V NP they are AdjP N Adj children amusing Adverbs – distributional properties Adverbs modify verbs (a), adjectives (b), other adverbs (c) and sentences as a whole (d). (a) We saw the file yesterday. (b) These strawberries taste awfully good. (c) He typed amazingly quickly. (d) Fortunately, it didn’t rain the day of our picnic. Adverbs modifying verbs (a) are broadly in three categories: Time: We saw the film yesterday. Place: Sharon flew home to see her folks. Manner: She graciously accepted my invitation. Adverbs modifying adjectives and other (manner) adverbs (b, c) are intensifiers. Adverbs modifying the sentence as a whole (d) are called sentence adverbs. February 12, 2009 February 12, 2009 Adverbs – derivational morphology Many adverbs are made by attaching the suffix –ly to an adjective. E.g., quickly, gently, diligenty This suffix –ly goes back to Old English suffix –lic ‘like’ NB: -ly can be an adjective-making suffix. motherly Some monosyllabic adverbs are in the same shape as adjectives (flat adverbs). E.g., hard, fast, loud This tofu is hard. (hard=adjective) She works hard. (hard=adverb) February 12, 2009 Adverbs – inflectional morphology Adverbs can be marked for degree with the suffixes –er (comparative) and –est (superlative), if it is monosyllabic. Joe works harder than Gloria. Jay runs the fastest among his classmates. To indicate comparative/superlative with adverbs longer than one syllable, suffixation is not used; instead, periphrastic forms with more/most are used. It’s going more quickly than I expected. February 12, 2009 ‘good’ and ‘bad’ Which form do you use? That child reads {bad, badly}/{good, well}. You might have heard/seen all forms used. ‘good’ and ‘bad’ Adjective: good, bad Adverb: well, badly So, That child reads well/badly. well/badly are adverbs, modifying the verb reads. February 12, 2009 February 12, 2009 4 Why are adjectives sometimes used (in nonstandard, or even stigmatized, form)? That child reads good/bad. Textbook (p. 114): This is perhaps the comparative and superlative of good and bad are the same: Adjective good Adverb well Adjective bad Adverb badly February 12, 2009 That child reads better/worse than me. That child reads the best/worst in the family. The adjective/adverb distinction is neutralized. Compare: That child sings beautifully. That child sings {more/less, the most/least} beautifully. That child is beautiful. February 12, 2009 Comparative better worse Superlative best worst It might be also because the use of adverb and adjective depends on the type of the verb and flat adverbs have the same form as their adjectives in both constructions. Linking verb Adjective (subject complement) e.g., feel happy, be ready, seem good Other verb Adverb (modifying the verb) e.g., run quickly, dance well, work hard She works hard. (hard=flat adverb) She looks hard. (hard=subject complement adjective) February 12, 2009 Exercise Are hard and better in the following sentences adjective or adverb? (a) He works hard. (b) This question looks hard. (c) I feel better today. (d) I can feel the music better than you can. February 12, 2009 Adverb Phrases An Adverb Phrase (AdvP) has an adverb as the head. It can contain modifiers (intensifiers) as well. Lou speaks rather fast. S NP VP N V AdvP Lou speaks Int. Adv rather fast Prepositions Prepositions take NPs as objects. Unlike verbs, they dont take the subjects and cannot be inflected for anything. Prepositions express for the NPs in various aspects. He left with Bob. (accompaniment) She cut the roll with a knife. (means) I walked into the room. (direction) They hid the heirlooms of the family. (possession) The mistake was made by the teacher. (agent) We live in Canada. (location) I’ll be there by noon (time). February 12, 2009 February 12, 2009 5 Dialectal variation Which do you use? I was waiting {on, in} line. I became sick {to, at} my stomach. Prepositional Phrases A Prepositional Phrase (PP) has a preposition as the head. PPs can modify nouns (adjectival PP). [The boy [with the kite]PP]NP is having fun. PPs can modify verbs (adverbial PP). We [got there [by bus]PP]VP. PPs can be subject complements. The king [is [without mercy]PP]VP. February 12, 2009 February 12, 2009 Recall the ambiguity in “The woman saw the soldiers with the binoculars”, coming from the PP modifying different syntactic constituents; the PP is adverbial in (a) while adjectival in (b). (a) ‘The woman used the binoculars to see the solders’. (b) ‘The woman saw the soldiers who had the binoculars’. More ambiguity – do you see the difference in the meaning? I sat near the boy in the overalls. S NP VP NV PP I sat P NP near D N’ the N PP boy P NP in D N the overalls February 12, 2009 S NP D N V D the S VP V’ NP N P D PP NP N D NP N V D N P D the woman VP NP N’ PP NP N S NP VP N V’ PP IV PP P NP sat P NP in D N near D N the overalls the boy woman saw the soldiers with the binoculars saw the soldiers with the binoculars February 12, 2009 More ambiguity – do you see the difference in the meaning? I sat near the boy in the overalls. S NP VP NV PP I sat P NP near D N’ the N PP boy P NP in D N the overalls February 12, 2009 Deferred preposition PP can be moved as a whole (recall the movement test for constituents). Question formation involves putting the ‘wh-’ words in front: you were speaking [to whom]PP [To whom]PP were you speaking? Relative clauses have the relative pronoun at the beginning: I know [the man [to whom [you were speaking GAP]]RC]NP. February 12, 2009 S NP VP N V’ PP IV PP P NP sat P NP in D N near D N the overalls the boy 6 Deferred preposition However, the head preposition is sometimes pronounced in the original place. The preposition in this case is called deferred preposition. Whom were you speaking to? you were speaking [to whom]PP I know [the man [whom [you were speaking to GAP]]]. February 12, 2009 Particles Particles are “the second element of a two-part transitive verb” (p. 127) (a) Dorothy turned down the invitation. “down” is particle, a part of the verb “turn down” ‘refuse’ Particles are the same as prepositions with respect to their forms, but they are not prepositions that project a PP with its object. (b) Dorothy turned down the brick road. “down” is preposition, a part of the PP “down the brick road” February 12, 2009 Particles and prepositions Dorothy turned down the brick road. S NP VP N V PP D. turn P NP down D N the road Dorothy turned down the invitation. S NP VP N V NP D. turned down D N the invitation Test – particle movement Particle movement: Particles can be put after the object NP of the verb V + particle + Obj. NP: V + Obj. NP + particle: I switched off the lights. I switched the lights off. Cf. V + preposition + Obj. NP (of P): I looked at the lights. *V + Obj. NP (of P) + preposition: *I looked the lights at. February 12, 2009 February 12, 2009 Test - substitution In transitive verbs with particles, if the object NP of the verb is a personal pronoun, the pronoun must be placed between the verb and the particle. I switched them off. *I switch off them. Dorothy turned [down the brick road]. Dorothy turned [there]. Dorothy turned down the invitation. Dorothy turned it down. Cf. Dorothy refused the invitation. February 12, 2009 February 12, 2009 7 Tests – movement Recall that a sequence of words that forms a constituent can be moved around without changing the meaning of the sentence. Dorothy turned [down the brick road]. It was down the brick road that Dorothy turned. Dorothy turned down the invitation. Turn down was what Dorothy did with the invitation. *It was down the invitation that Dorothy turned. February 12, 2009 Midterm test – time & location - Date: February 26, in regular lecture hours (1-3 pm) Place: Last name beginning with A to L: BA1160 (regular class room) Last name beginning with M to Z: EX300 Building: EX (Examination Centre/Examination Facility) Address: 255 McCaul Street Room number: 300 February 12, 2009 Midterm – coverage, format - - - Midterm test covers everything discussed up till today (lecture slides, lecture discussion, supplementary readings, chapters one to seven of the textbook) You may bring in one piece of letter-size (8.5 x 11) paper (both-sided) with your notes in it. No other aids are allowed. Various question types, including multiple choice, showing representations (trees, Reichenbachian), short answers (e.g., explanation of concepts, analyzing certain linguistic phenomena). February 12, 2009 8 ...
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