204_Lecture_week_9 - LIN204H1S English Grammar Todays goal...

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1 March 12, 2009 LIN204H1S English Grammar Today’s goal: - To understand more semantic roles - To understand discourse function in English March 12, 2009 Announcement - Homework #3 will be posted on the course website by Saturday. It is due next week in class (March 19) and will be collected at 2:45 pm. March 12, 2009 Semantic roles Slide #8 of last week’s lecture notes: (b) Joel drove to London for his mother. agent goal benefactive Semantic roles: roles that the verb assigns to its arguments (the subject and the object(s)) to tell the relation between the subject and the event or state described by the sentence, or roles that the preposition assigns to its object. March 12, 2009 Semantic roles agent: Someone or something that performs an action or causes it to happen patient: Someone or something that undergoes an action or change of state instrument: Something that is used to perform an action theme: Someone or something that is being described, or that is used as a description of something else experiencer: Someone who experiences a mental or emotional state locative: The place where something is located, or where an event happens benefactive: Someone for whom an action is performed March 12, 2009 More semantic roles goal: The endpoint of a motion. source: The starting point of a motion. (a) Joel drove from Toronto to London for his mother. agent source goal benefactive temporal: The time at which an event happens or at which a state holds. (b) The next morning, he looked as though he had slept under a hedge. temporal theme agent locative the next morning indicates the time reference of the sentence just by virtue of its own meaning and its position as a sentence modifier. In a few cases, there is no obvious external source for the semantic role. March 12, 2009 Discourse functions A clause contains a subject and the predicate VP. (A sentence may have more than one clause – more about this next week) Clauses have different structures and their main purposes: - Declarative: statements; to give information - Interrogative: questions; to get information - Imperative: commands; to get people to behave in certain ways - Exclamative: to express a judgment or a feeling with added emphasis - Subjunctive: hypothetical, rather than actual, statements We will further look at declaratives, interrogatives, imperatives and exclamatives.
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2 March 12, 2009 Declaratives The most basic clause type. To express a statement. The normal word order: Subject + Verb (+ Object) Punctuation: “.” (period) at the end (a) Jack left town this morning. (b) Amy can go to school. March 12, 2009 Interrogatives To get information. Several subtypes: - yes-no questions: questions that ask whether a statement is true or false, and can generally be answered by either yes or no - wh- questions: questions that ask for a piece of information that will complete a (true) statement - tag questions: questions that ask whether a statement is true or false, among other purposes (e.g., to get reassurance) - Minor question types Echo questions Embedded questions March 12, 2009 Yes-no questions Purpose: To ask whether a statement is true or false
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This note was uploaded on 01/19/2010 for the course LINGUISTIC LIN204 taught by Professor Mayami during the Winter '09 term at University of Toronto.

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204_Lecture_week_9 - LIN204H1S English Grammar Todays goal...

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