204_lecture_week_11_OE - LIN204H1S English Grammar Week 11-...

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LIN204H1S English Grammar Winter/spring 2009 Week 11- I Old English 1/12 Old English (OE) 1 1. Chronological stages of English Old English (OE): 450- 1100 Middle English (ME): 1100- 1500 Early Modern English (EModE): 1500- 1800 Present-Day English (PDE): 1800- A few important dates in the history of the English language 449: The Germanic people (Jutes, Angles, and Saxons) come to Britain 1066: Norman Conquest ca. 1500: Great Vowel Shift ca. 1520: English Renaissance begins 1776: United States of America declare independence from Britain ca. 1800 Industrial Revolution 2. Ancestors of English English is a member of the West Germanic sub-branch of the Germanic branch of Proto-Indo-European (PIE), which is believed to have been spoken sometime between 5000 BCE and 3000 BCE in eastern Europe and/or western Asia. (See the appendix for language family.) - Western branch = Kentum language (PIE palatal k > [k]; ‘hundred’ Gr. he-katon , Lt. centum , Tocharian känt , Old Irish cet , Welsh cant ) - Eastern branch = Satem language (PIE palatal k > [s] or [š]; Sanskrit satam , Lithuanian szimtas , Old Slavonic seto (modern Russian sto )) 3. People who lived in Britain and people who spoke Old English (OE) 3.1 Before the OE period Celts were living in Britain. Then the Romans came. And then the Roman troops left Britain; they were sent back. 3.2 OE period Then the Germanic people started coming in 449 CE (according to the Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum ( Ecclesiastical History of the English People ) (731) by the Venerable Bede, a monk in the monastery of Jarrow): The Jutes came first (from the Jutland, nowadays the Danish peninsula), then the Saxons (from the area between the Elbe and Rhine rivers, now Germany and Holland), and finally the Angles (from south of the Jutes, in modern-day Schleswig-Holstein (Germany)). 1 My lecture notes are based on descriptions in: - Barber, Charles (1993). The English Language A Historical Introduction . CUP. - Brinton, Laurel J. and Leslie K. Arnovick (2006). The English Language: A Linguistic History . OUP. - Millward, C. M. (1996). A Biography of the English Language (2 nd ed.). Harcourt Brace College Publishers.
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Winter/spring 2009 Week 11- I Old English 2/12 (1) Immigration of the Jutes, Saxons and Angles (Brinton & Arnovick 2006:145, Fig. 5.6) After amalgamations and conquests, there were seven kingdoms, the (Anglo-Saxon) Haptarchy (Kent, Wessex, Sussex, Essex, East Anglia, Mercia and Northumbria) (2) The Haptarchy (Barber 1993:103, Fig. 7) The Germanic people kept coming, pushing the
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204_lecture_week_11_OE - LIN204H1S English Grammar Week 11-...

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