Chapter 1 : New World Beginnings (33,000 BCE-1769) Key Terms Definitions Canadian Shield ● First part of the North American landmass to emerge above sea level. Incas ● Highly advanced South American civilization that occupied present-day Peru until they were conquered by Spanish forces under Francisco Pizarro in 1532. ● The Incas developed sophisticated agricultural techniques, such as terrace farming, in order to sustain large, complex societies in the unforgiving Andes Mountains. Aztecs ● Native American empire that controlled present-day Mexico until 1521, when they were conquered by Spanish Hernán Cortés. ● The Aztecs maintained control over their vast empire through a system of trade and tribute, and came to be known for their advances in mathematics and writing, and their use of human sacrifices in religious ceremonies Spain ● Wanted to be like Portugal like how they are finding better ways for trade ● Richest, most powerful empire ○ First to explore new world Anasazi (Pueblo People) ● Trived in Arizona, New Mexico, Mesa Verde carved from cliffs for ventilation Nation-States ● The form of political society that combines centralized government with a high degree of ethnic and cultural unity. Cahokia ● Mississippian settlement near present-day East St. Louis, home to as many as 25,000 Native Americans. Three-Sister Farming ● Agricultural system employed by North American Indians as early as 1000 A.D.; maize, beans and squash were grown together to maximize yields. Middlemen ● In trading systems, those dealers who operate between the original producers of goods and the retail merchants who sell to consumers. ● After the eleventh century, European exploration was driven in large part by a desire to acquire alluring Asian goods without paying heavy tolls to Muslim middlemen. Caravel ● Small regular vessel with a high deck and three triangular sails. Caravels could sail more closely into the wind, allowing European sailors to explore the Western shores of Africa, previously made inaccessible due to prevailing winds on the homeward journey. Plantation ● Large-scale agricultural enterprise growing commercial crops and usually employing coerced or slave labor. European settlers established plantations in Africa, South America, the Caribbean and the American South Columbian Exchange ● The transfer of goods, crops and diseases between New and Old World societies after 1492. Treaty of Tordesillas ● Signed by Spain and Portugal, dividing the territories of the New World. Spain received the bulk of territory in the Americas, compensating Portugal with titles to lands in Africa and Asia. Encomienda ● Spanish government's policy to "commend," or give, Indians to certain colonists in return for the promise to Christianize them. Part of a broader Spanish effort to subdue Indian tribes in the West Indies and on the North American mainland.
Noche Triste ● "Sad night", when the Aztecs attacked Hernán Cortés and his forces in the Aztec capital, Tenochitlán, killing hundreds. Cortés laid siege to the city the
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