Chapter 5 : Colonial Society on the Eve of Revolution Key Terms Definition Mercantilism ● Colonies exist to make mother country more powerful and wealthy ○ Mostly only supposed to be trading with England but some people trade with other countries Paxton Boys ● armed march on Philadelphia by Scotts-Irish frontiersmen in protest against the Quaker establishment's lenient policies toward Native Americans Regulator Movement ● eventually violent uprising of backcountry settlers in North Carolina against unfair taxation and the control of colonial affairs by the seaboard elite. New York Slave Revolt ● Uprising of approximately two dozen enslaved Africans that resulted in the deaths of nine whites and the brutal execution of twenty-one participating blacks South Carolina Slave Revolt (Stono River) ● Uprising, also known as the Stono Rebellion, of more than fifty South Carolina blacks along the Sono River. They attempted to reach Spanish Florida but were stopped by the South Carolina militia Triangular Trade ● exchange of rum, slaves, and molasses between the North American Colonies, Africa, and the West Indies. A small but immensely profitable subset of the Atlantic trade. Molasses Act ● tax on imported molasses passed by Parliament in an effort to squelch the North American trade with the French West Indies. It proved largely ineffective due to widespread smuggling. Arminianism ● belief that salvation is offered to all humans but is conditional on acceptance of God's grace. Different from Calvinism, which emphasizes predestination and unconditional election. Great Awakening ● religious revival that swept the colonies. Participating ministers, most notable Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield, placed an emphasis on direct, emotive spirituality. A Second Great Awakening arose in the nineteenth century. Old Lights ● orthodox clergymen who rejected the emotionalism of the Great Awakening in favor of a more rational spirituality. New Lights ● ministers who took part in the revivalist, emotive religious tradition pioneered by George Whitefield during the Great Awakening. Poor Richard’s Almanack ● widely read annual pamphlet edited by Benjamin Franklin. Best known for its proverbs and aphorisms emphasizing thrift, industry, morality, and common sense. Zenger Trial ● New York libel case against John Peter Zenger. Established the principle that truthful statements about public officials could not be prosecuted as defaming ● Because American jury, the Americans found Zenger not guilty and this was the start of freedom of speech and press in America
Royal Colonies ● colonies where governors were appointed directly by the King. Though often competent administrators, the governors frequently ran into trouble with colonial legislatures, which resented the imposition of control from across the Atlantic.
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