Chapter 9 : The Confederation and Constitution Key Terms Definition Articles of Confederation ● first American constitution that established the United States as a loose confederation of states under a weak national Congress ○ Not granted the power to regulate commerce or collect taxes. ○ No executive branch (Anti-England) ○ States rule and create their own constitutions ● They were replaced by a more efficient Constitution in 1789 Constitution ● Basic : Separation of Powers - Executive, Legislative, Judicial ● Checks and balances, bill of rights (first 10 amendments to constitution) Old Northwest ● territories acquired by the federal government from the states, encompassing land northwest of the Ohio River, east of the Mississippi River and south of the Great Lakes ● well-organized management and sale of the land in the territories under the land ordinances of 1785 and 1787 established a precedent for handling future land acquisitions. Land Ordinance of 1785 ● provided for the sale of land in the Old Northwest and earmarked the proceeds toward repaying the national debt Northwest Ordinance ● created a policy for administering the Northwest Territories. It included a path to statehood and forbade the expansion of slavery into the territories. ○ Problems with English in Great Lakes and Spain on Mississippi River ○ Pirates in the Mediterranean Shay’s Rebellion ● (Fall 1785) armed uprising of western Massachusetts debtors seeking lower taxes and an end to property foreclosures. ○ Small, poor farmers rising up with Daniel Shays ○ Moment when more states see problems with Articles ● Though quickly put down, the insurrection inspired fears of "mob rule" among leading Revolutionaries. Virginia Plan ● "large state" proposal for the new constitution ○ calling for proportional representation in both houses of a bicameral Congress. ● The plan favored larger states and this prompted smaller states to come back with their own plan for apportioning representation. New Jersey Plan ● "small-state plan" put forth at the Philadelphia convention ○ proposing equal representation by state, regardless of population, in a unicameral legislature. ● Small states feared that the more populous states would dominate the agenda under a proportional system Great Compromise ● popular term for the measure which reconciled the New Jersey and Virginia plans at the constitutional convention, giving states proportional representation in the House and equal representation in the Senate.
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