Chapter 8: Political Participation A Close Look at Nonvoting ★ People who are able to vote are in the voter age population meaning they have reached minimum age requirements ○ These exclude noncitizens, prisoners, and disenfranchised felons and are called voter eligible population ★ USA elects more officials than many other countries and this could lead to why it has a lower voter turnout ○ People also don’t vote because they may have conflict on that day or they fail to register to vote ■ Motor Voter Law (1993) makes it easier for someone to register when they receive their license ○ Get out the vote efforts increase participation like public record and informing neighbors of participation The Rise of the American Electorate ➔ When the constitution was ratified, only white property owners could vote but then slowly other groups were able to vote ◆ Suffrage to women, African Americans, 18 year olds, and direct election of senators ● 15 Amendment - people could not be discriminated because of their race, color, servitude ➔ There were efforts to exclude African Americans like literacy tests, poll taxes, and the grandfather clause Who Participates in Politics? ➔ Participation comes in the form of involvement with a campaign or attending community meeting but is costly requiring time, money, and interest in government ➔ Six Forms of Participation 1. Inactive - 22% rarely vote, do not get involved or talk about politics, little education, low incomes, and usually young 2. Activists - 11% highly educated, high incomes, middle aged and participate in all types of politics 3. Voting Specialists - vote but do little else, decent schooling and income and older than most 4. Campaigners - vote and are involved in campaign activities, better educated with clear identification with party and willingness to take positions 5. Communalists - do not like tension or conflict with partisan campaigns, join local organizations to solve problems 6. Parochial Participants - don’t vote and stay out of elections but are willing to contact officials on problems
➔ Factors that drive participation ◆ Citizens need resources to participate in politics like time, money, and civics skills ● Time to be politically active, money to donate, and civic skills like communicating ◆ Those with more education have higher incomes and have better skills ● Education fosters civic norms in students and help them realize participation matters ◆ Being mobilized helps get more people out the door ● Having a political party and campaigns help, some religious institutions ● Already voting before creates a habit that will be done again ◆ Deep concern about particular issues ● Community problems may influence someone to participate for their community ◆ Experience with government programs
Chapter 9: Political Parties What Is a Party?
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- Fall '19
- Test, Coalition government, International Democrat Union, Politics of the United States