Henretta.Chapter 7 - A Federal Republic.2019.pptx - Chapter...

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Chapter 7 - A Federal Republic
George Washington (1732-1799)Born in Westmoreland Co, Virginia – on father’s plantationLittle is known of his early formal education – Augustin died when he was young – could not study abroad – formal education ended when he was 15 years old At age 17, he became a surveyor & was appointed county surveyor of Culpepper County, VirginiaAt age 21, he was sent into the Ohio R. Valley to deliver a message to the French (Fort Le Bouef)Led the Continental Army – then in 1783 retired to Mount Vernon – called back to preside over the Constitutional Convention in 1787In 1788 – elected President of the United States
Political Crisis of the 1790sFederalists won 44 seats in the House of Representatives - the Anti-federalists won only 8John Adams became Vice President when George Washington was elected – he was the runner-upKept many of the practices of the Confederation Also set up executive departments for Foreign Affairs (State), Treasury & War
Establishing a New GovernmentThomas Jefferson – Secretary of StateAlexander Hamilton – Secretary of the TreasuryHenry Knox – Secretary of WarJudiciary Act of 1789 – created a federal district courts in every state, three circuit courts to hear appeals & the Supreme Court would make final decisionsMadison (House) submitted 18 amendments – 10 were ratified by 1791 – became known as the Bill of Rights
Alexander HamiltonEarly Life & MarriageThree Reports to CongressReport on the Public Credit – asked Congress to assume the $55 million in Confederate securities – problem with speculators – also paid with new securities – Also wanted to assume states’ debts (hang together)Made a deal to get assumption – agreed to place the new national capital in Virginia – on the Potomac River
Alexander Hamilton (cont.)Report on a National Bank – proposed a Bank of the United States – both publicly and privately ownedArgued it would stimulate the economy – could issue bills of creditJefferson charged that the bank was unconstitutional because the Constitution did not provide for one – strict construction – Hamilton said it didn’t prohibit - loose construction – Washington signed the bill – 20 yearsReport on Manufacturing – urged the development of American manufacturing – moderate revenue tariffsCountry prospered & began to pay down the debt
Thomas JeffersonEarly Life & Relationship with Sally Hemings – kept notebooks – wrote on geology, Greek & Roman authors – French philosophers designed his home, Monticello & U. of VA – designed ownfurnishings, spectacles etc.By the time Washington began his 2nd4-year term, factions had appeared, the Federalists and the Democratic – Republicans (Madison & Jefferson)Agrarian vision – nation of yeoman farmers Also supported a free press & he detested Kings & clergy - no public statues
Jefferson-Hemings FamilyMost historians agree that Jefferson most likely fathered 6children by Hemings – Based on a DNA study of 1998Harriet (died 1796); Beverly (1798); Thenia (died 1799);

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