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handout Lakota SAMPA

handout Lakota SAMPA - English gloss 1 a[p_ha~Za it is...

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Exercise: Sound Symbolism in Lakota Lakota has an interesting pattern known as sound symbolism. In some sets of related vocabulary items, the meaning differences represent different points on an increasing scale of intensity, such as the English words “big” and “huge”, or “damp”, “wet”, “soaked”. Unlike English, however, Lakota mirrors these semantic differences in the sounds of the words themselves through a definite and consistent progression of sound changes. The words below are given in phonetic transcription. The tilde as in [a)] [a~] indicates a nasalized vowel. The data have been simplified in certain regards. Examine the following sets of Lakota words and their glosses. Based entirely on the meanings of the words within each set, arrange the words in their order of intensity, going from least to most intense. (The exact nature of "intensity" will vary from set to set.) Lakota-SAMPA
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Unformatted text preview: English gloss 1. a) [p_ha~Za] it is porous and soft b) [p_ha~Ga] it is porous and hard 2. a) [ptuGa] small pieces are cracked off so they fall off b) [ptuza] it is bent forward c) [ptuZa] small pieces are cracked but not broken off 3. a) [SuZa] it is badly bruised b) [suza] it has a slight bruise c) [xuGa] it is fractured 4. a) [Sli] semiliquid matter is being squeezed out b) [xli] it is muddy material c) [sli] a thin liquid (e.g., water) is being squeezed out 5. a) [zi] it is yellow b) [Zi] it is tawny c) [Gi] it is brown Now compare the words in each intensity-ordered list you have determined. You should discover that the sounds that change from word to word are always in a definite and consistent order, correlating with the changes from lower to higher intensity in the meanings. The data have two such series of sounds. What are they? How would you describe the progression in phonetic terms? What is the relation between the two series?...
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