handout lexical phonemic SAMPA

handout lexical phonemic SAMPA - The difference between...

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The difference between phonemic representations and lexical representations, or The Story of Engma (discussed briefly in the textbook Chapter 3, section 4.) On this handout, examples in English spelling appear in italics. Underlining is for emphasis. Background on engma. 1. Most dialects of English have minimal pairs contrasting nasal stops at three places of articulation, e.g. sum [sVm] – sun [sVn] – sung [sVN]. However, in some dialects, sung is pronounced [sVNg], which means that these dialects do not have any true minimal pairs contrasting the velar nasal with [m] or [n]. Speakers of English also vary in their pronunciation of words such as singer , which may or may not have a [g] following the [N]. 2. In all dialects of English, [N] occurs in fewer environments than other consonants. It never occurs at the beginning of a word or at the beginning of a stressed syllable. 3. The book contrasts this situation with Malay, a language in which [N] can occur in any environment, including word-initially, e.g., [N]eri ‘terrified’ – [n]eri ‘plant species’. Phonemic analysis – identifying the sounds that contrast in a language’s words – deals with sound distinctions on the surface (phonetic) level. If two sounds distinguish a minimal pair, then those two sounds count as distinct phonemes. So for many speakers of English, [N] is indisputably a phoneme. Arguments for using two levels of representation in generative phonology. (This section is adapted from Gussenhoven, C. & Jacobs, H. (1998).
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handout lexical phonemic SAMPA - The difference between...

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