Writing rules in a linear format using featuresTerminologyfocus = sounds that undergo change.environment = sounds around the focus that condition the process (determine where or whether it takes place.) The environment can include factors such as position in the word.Rule formatfocus –> [changed features] / environment•Formally, the focus sound(s) is (are) to be specified by using the minimumnumber of features that are necessary to identify those sounds, and only those sounds, in the language. •To the right of the arrow are listed all the features that changevalue between the focus and the new sound being created. •The environment is also to be specified using the minimal set of features that uniquely identifies the appropriate context.Example: In the Hungarian nouns (from earlier handout), where obstruents became voiced preceding a voiced consonant, we could write the rule as follows:[– sonorant] →[+ voice] /__ [– sonorant, + voice]This rule says that an obstruent ([-son]) becomes voiced before any voiced obstruent, even
This is the end of the preview.
access the rest of the document.
Phonation, voice onset time, Sonorant, Obstruent, undergo change. environment, Rule format focus