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PSYCH210 Exam 3 Study GuideChildhood Sexual ExpressionWhy is research on childhood sexuality limited and what is the current solution? Children are notoriously inaccurate reliable of information (reliable data almost impossible) Direct observation is difficult because sexual behavior is less frequent in children than adults Ethical and legal concerns also limit the types of questions researchers can ask and the methodsThe various dimensions of sexual development Developmental Dimensions Cognitive: Sexual meaning develops with language and consciousness Social (interpersonal): Involvement of others (love maps) Egocentric - other incorporative - other oriented Gender: Understanding and sense of self and others Continuum: undifferentiated - fluid – constantOrientation: Erotic attraction, love attachment Development of sexual identity/roleErotic: Experience pleasure, guilt Love map - emotional qualities of love, sexuality, sensuality For Infants (Birth to 2 years)What are the typical sexual experiences of an infant?Need for touch is undifferentiated from other needs Sensorimotor - discovery through sensation, movement, experience control of pain and pleasure, tactile exploration, unfocused masturbation How does the idea of sexuality develop cognitively?During infancy babies learn primarily through though touch and movement Begin learning how and when they can control pain and pleasure How is gender experienced?No sense of their gender or gender of others Parental stereotyping of clothes and toys and how the parent interacts with their child will have a large impact on the child’s concept of gender norms. What are typical rearing differences between boys and girls?Fathers tend to cuddle and use baby talk more often with their daughters than their sons Fathers will engage in adult talk and engage in rough and tumble play with their sons How is eroticism experienced?Experienced pragmatically if it feels good, get more, if it feels bad, stop doing it Infants begin to recognize that pleasurable feelings come from erogenous zones A body map emerges where infants associate positive or negative feelings with differentparts of their bodies What does the social dimension of sexuality consist of?Tend to experience love objects (their caregivers) as extensions of themselves and not as separate persons Attachment to caregivers will establish the pattern of future love relationships and sensuality Infants will kiss, hug, pat and gaze at othersWhat is the state of sexual orientation in infancy?Unaware of own or other’s gender Orient to the familiar - smell, sound Preference for higher pitched voices For early childhood (Age 2-8)The development of sexuality in early childhood