TVET AND ACCOUNTING IN MALAYSIA
DEFINITION OF TVET United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) defines technical and vocational education and training (TVET) as those aspects of the educational process involving: general education the study of technologies and related sciences acquisition of practical skills and attitudes an understanding and knowledge related to occupations in various sectors of economic and social life. Although TVET is known by many other names in some countries and regions, essentially all those names derived the same meaning as TVET. Among the names are: a) Apprenticeship Training b) Vocational Education c) Technical Education d) Technical-Vocational Education (TVE) e) Occupational Education (OE) f) Vocational Education and Training (VET) g) Professional and Vocational Education (PVE) h) Career and Technical Education (CTE) i) Workforce Education (WE) j) Workplace Education (WE) 1
HISTORY DEVELOPMENT OF TVET a) Pre-independence - The history of technical and vocational schools began with the establishment of a Trades School in Kuala Lumpur in 1926. The main idea for this school is to provide trades education to the youth. In 1930, the school was expanded to Ipoh, Johor Bahru and established in Penang in 1932. b) Post-independence - During this phase, our government started to give an enormous concern on TVET, from First Malaysia Plan 1965-1970 to the Tenth Malaysia Plan 2010- 2015. During the First Malaysia Plan period, a number of upper-secondary vocational schools were established for the first time in 1965. The main function of the vocational schools was to supply skilled technicians, craftsmen and artisans urgently needed by the agricultural, industrial and commercial sectors in economy. However, in early 1970, TVET was not limited to vocational schools only. Other TVET institutions such as the Industrial Training Institutes (ITI), Polytechnics, MARA Vocational Institutes, National Youth Development Corps (NYDC) and the Center for Instructor and Advanced Skill Training (CIAST) have been expanded or established to provide technical and vocational education and skills training. We can say that, the increase of foreign investment through multinational companies in Malaysia resulted in the introduction of new production processes and technologies. Hence, the industry had increased the demand of a highly competent workforce with advanced skills. Hence, two advanced skill training institutions were established in 1995, in cooperation with Germany and France which are the German Malaysia Institute (GMI) and Malaysia France Institute (MFI). In 2006, with the new enactment of National Skills Development Act (NASDA) 652, National Vocational Training Council (NVTC) was restructured to become the Department of Skills Development (DSD) under the Ministry of Human Resources (MoHR) with the responsibilities: ● to develop and continuously revise training standards, skills training and the certification system, 2
● to promote skills training and ● to coordinate strategies and skills training programs c) Present (2020) - As nation moves forward with the Fourth Industrial Revolution (IR 4.0)
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- Fall '19
- Vocational education, TVET