Course Hero Logo

Pearson Chapter 2.docx - Pearson Chapter 2: Biological...

Course Hero uses AI to attempt to automatically extract content from documents to surface to you and others so you can study better, e.g., in search results, to enrich docs, and more. This preview shows page 1 - 3 out of 8 pages.

Pearson Chapter 2: Biological FoundationsEndocrine System:Consists of glands in various parts of the body. Throughhormones, the glands coordinate their functioning and affect the development andfunctioning of the body-Release Hormones:Chemicals, released by the glands of the endocrinesystem, that affect the development and functioning of the body,including development during pubertyPuberty:The changes in physiology, anatomy, and physical functioning that developa person into a mature adult biologically and prepare the body for sexualreproductionHypothalamus:Where hormonal changes of puberty begin. It is the “master gland”,located in the lower part of the brain beneath the cortex, that affects a wide rangeof physiological and psychological functioning and stimulates and regulates theproduction of hormones by other glands, including the ones involved in the initiationof pubertyGonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH):Hormone released by the hypothalamusthat causes gonadotropins to be released by the pituitary-The increase occurs once a threshold level of body fat is reachedLeptin:A protein, produced by fat calls, that signals the hypothalamus to initiate thehormonal changes of pubertyPituitary Gland:A gland about half an inch long located at the base of the brain thatreleases gonadotropins as part of the body’s preparation for reproductionGonadotropins:Hormones (FSH and LH) that stimulate the development of gametes-(FSH) Follicle-stimulating hormone:along with LH (Luteinizing Hormone),stimulates the development of gametes and sex hormones in the ovariesand testiclesGametes:Egg cells in the ovaries of the female and sperm in the testes of the maleGonads:The ovaries and testicles. Also known as the sex glandsSex Hormones:Androgens and estrogens that cause the development of primaryand secondary sex characteristics-Estrogen:The sex hormones that have especially high levels in femalesfrom puberty onward and are mostly responsible for female primary andsecondary sex characteristicsoMost important estrogen is Estradiol:-Androgens:The sex hormones that have especially high levels in malesfrom puberty onward and are mostly responsible for male primary andsecondary sex characteristicsoThe most important androgen is Testosterone
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH):The hormone that causes the adrenal glandsto increase androgen productionFeedback Loop:System of hormones involving the hypothalamus, the pituitarygland, and the gonads, which monitors and adjusts the levels of the sex hormonesSet Point:Optimal level of sex hormones in the body. When this point is reached,responses in the glands of the feedback loop cause the production of sex hormonesto be reducedAdolescent Growth Spurt:Earliest signs of puberty for both girls and boys. The rapidincrease in height that takes place at the beginning pubertyPeak Height Velocity:The point at which the adolescent growth spurt is at itsmaximum rate-Girls grow at about 3.5 inches a year, and boys grow about 4.1 inches

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

End of preview. Want to read all 8 pages?

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

Term
Spring
Professor
N/A
Tags
Secondary sex characteristic

Newly uploaded documents

Show More

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture