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Chapter 4.docx - Chapter 4: Cultural Beliefs Cultural...

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Chapter 4: Cultural BeliefsCultural Beliefs:Commonly held norms and moral standards of a culture, thestandards of right and wrong that set expectations for behavior-These beliefs are usually rooted in the culture’s Symbolic Inheritance:a set ofideas and understandings, both implicit and explicit, about persons, society,nature and divinity (the basis for its norms and standards)-Include both the beliefs that constitute a culture’s symbolic inheritance andthe norms and mroal standards that arise from these beliefsRoles:Defined social positions in a culture, containing specifications of behavior,status, and relations with others. Examples include gender, age, and social classGender Roles:beliefs about the kinds of work, appearance, and other aspects ofbehavior that distinguish women from men-Cultures may also have age-related roles-England: working class young men have a distinctive kind of dress (leatherand denim), language (slang and profanity), and behavior (fighting anddrinking)Socialization:The process by which people acquire the behaviors and beliefs of theculture they live in. Three outcomes are central to this process shared by allcultures(1) Self-Regulation:The capacity for exercising self-control to restrain one’simpulses and comply with social norms. This includes the development of aconscience, which is the internal monitor of whether you are complyingadequately with social norms(2) Role Preparation:The second outcome of socialization. Includes preparationfor occupational roles, gender roles, and roles in institutions such as marriageand parenthood. .(3) Sources of Meaning:indicate what is important, what is to be valued, andwhat is to be lived for-Central issue with respect to cultural values about socialization concernswhether cultures place more value on independence and self-expression or,alternatively, on obedience and conformity as the characteristics they wish topromote in their childrenInterdependent Self:Collectivistic cultures that’s people place a strong value oncooperation, mutual support, harmonious social relations, and contributions to thegroupIndependent Self:Individualistic cultures that people’s place a strong value onindependence, individual freedoms, and individual achievements-Some scholars have pointed out that most western cultures, too, haveelements of collectivism, and most eastern cultures have elements of

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Sociology, Lawrence Kohlberg

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