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Chapter 4,5,6 - Exam Review Chapter 4 scientists are often...

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Exam Review Chapter 4 - scientists are often described as skeptics o demand that experiment results be replicated Clinical Research - the scientific method : a method of inquiry that provides for the systematic collection of data through controlled observation and for the testing of hypotheses - a hypothesis: is a conjectural statement that usually describes a relationship between two variables - theory: group of principles and hypotheses that together explain some aspect of a particular area of inquiry Characteristics of Clinical Research - proceed only when a hypothesis is clearly and systematically stated and when the variables of concern are measurable and defined - potential for self-correction o data and conclusions are freely exchanged and experiments are replicable so that all are subject to discussion, testing, verification, and modification o knowledge is as free as possible from the scientists perceptions, biases, values, attitudes, and emotions. - Hypothesizing relationships o attempts to identify and explain the relationship between variables - operational definitions o definitions for the variables that are being studied o important because they force and experimenter to clearly define what he or she means by the variable allows others to disagree or agree o comparing definitions can be problematic when there are many variations ex. Child sexual abuse: many different definitions, general conclusions are difficult o definitions must be clear and precise - reliability and validity of measures and observations o measures we use must be reliable and consistent o Reliability: the degree to which a measure or procedure will yield the same results repeatedly Individual is diagnosed by means of a questionnaire…they should receive the same diagnosis if they take the questionnaire again Diagnostic reliability is low in many of the childhood disorders o Validity : even if results are consistent questions can arise over the valididt measure - Base rates o the rate of natural occurrence of a phenomenon in the population studied without this research findings can be misinterpreted
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Mistakenly assuming that sexual abuse may cause eating disorders, or the other way around, when both actually are high frequency behaviors (high base rates - Statistical versus clinical significance o Statistical significance: the likelihood that the relationship could be due to chance alone Experiments - the best tool for testing cause and effect relationships - Involves the following: o Experimental Hypothesis Prediction concerning how an independent variable affects a dependent variable in an experiment o Independent Variable (possible cause) which the experimenter manipulates to determine its effect on a dependent variable o Dependent Variable Expected to change as a result of changes in the independent variable - Confounding variables o Factors other than the independent variable that may affect the dependent variable o If all are eliminated then the study has high
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