4S.LUKASHOVAHANDBOOK OF PSYCHOLOGY 154 READER FOR LECTURES 5-8:1. MEMORY AND ATTENTION2. INTELLIGENCE3. EMOTIONS4. MOTIVATIONSDU 2019-2020
Chapter 5. Memory and attentionMemory is the faculty of the brain by which data or information is encoded, stored, and retrievedwhen needed. It is the retention of information over time for the purpose of influencing futureaction. If past events could not be remembered, it would be impossible for language,relationships, or personal identity to develop. Memory loss is usually described as forgetfulnessor amnesia.Memory is often understood as an informational processing system with explicit and implicitfunctioning that is made up of a sensory processor, short-term (or working) memory, and long-term memory. This can be related to the neuron. The sensory processor allows information fromthe outside world to be sensed in the form of chemical and physical stimuli and attended tovarious levels of focus and intent. Working memory serves as an encoding and retrievalprocessor. Information in the form of stimuli is encoded in accordance with explicit or implicitfunctions by the working memory processor. The working memory also retrieves informationfrom previously stored material. Finally, the function of long-term memory is to store datathrough various categorical models or systems.Declarative, or explicit, memory is the conscious storage and recollection of data. Underdeclarative memory resides semantic and episodic memory. Semantic memory refers to memorythat is encoded with specific meaning, while episodic memory refers to information that isencoded along a spatial and temporal plane. Declarative memory is usually the primary processthought of when referencing memory. Non-declarative, or implicit, memory is the unconsciousstorage and recollection of information. An example of a non-declarative process would be theunconscious learning or retrieval of information by way of procedural memory, or a primingphenomenon. Priming is the process of subliminally arousing specific responses from memoryand shows that not all memory is consciously activated, whereas procedural memory is the slowand gradual learning of skills that often occurs without conscious attention to learning.Memory is not a perfect processor, and is affected by many factors. The ways by whichinformation is encoded, stored, and retrieved can all be corrupted. The amount of attention givennew stimuli can diminish the amount of information that becomes encoded for storage. Also, thestorage process can become corrupted by physical damage to areas of the brain that areassociated with memory storage, such as the hippocampus. Finally, the retrieval of informationfrom long-term memory can be disrupted because of decay within long-term memory. Normalfunctioning, decay over time, and brain damage all affect the accuracy and capacity of thememory.