COMM 4510 - Midterm 1

COMM 4510 - Midterm 1 - COMM 4510 Midterm 1 Knapp, Chapter...

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COMM 4510 – Midterm 1 3 Types of Nonverbal communication: 1. Arbitrary : no resemblance to the sign and the meaning - These have culturally agreed upon meanings (but meaning may vary depending on context) - Examples: peace sign/bunny ears, sign language, flipping someone off 2. Iconic : the sign or symbol resembles the meaning - These also depend on context - Examples: slitting throat, making a gun with your hand, using fingers to represent numbers 3. Intrinsic : the nonverbal IS what you are communicating - Universal meanings - Examples: hugging, kissing, smiling, crying The five primary functions of nonverbal communication: 1. Expressing emotion 2. Conveying attitude (like/dislike, dominance/submission) 3. Presenting one’s identity to others 4. Managing interaction 5. Ritualistic communication (greetings, farewells) The three simultaneous meanings that Mehrabian identified for nonverbal communication: 1. Immediacy : conveying how we feel about something 2. Status : conveying our perceptions of who is dominant or weak, superior or subordinate, equal 3. Responsiveness : conveying the degree of interest we have in the moment – from active to passive Conflicting verbal and nonverbal messages: - Sender has mixed feelings - Sender is trying to hide he truth - Sender is trying to be sarcastic or ironic
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Which is most likely to be trusted? - People tend to trust the nonverbal because it is harder to mask and carry more information - Six graders learned more with a positive message conveyed with a negative nonverbal Implies seriousness or concern The Shapiro and Vande Creek/Watkins studies: - Shapiro researched whether students relied more on facial or verbal cues when a discrepancy existed between a sketched face and an incongruent written message. Some relied on face while other relied on the message. - Vande Creek/Watkins used real voices and motion picture that were inconsistent and got the same results. Quasi-courtship : behavior is “flirting” without any intention of a future courtship - Example: flirting with employees Phylogeny : the natural human behaviors Ontogeny : the behaviors we learn from nature Three primary sources of our nonverbal behavior:
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COMM 4510 - Midterm 1 - COMM 4510 Midterm 1 Knapp, Chapter...

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