Final Review

Final Review - 1 Labeling Theory Reaction to Positivism...

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1 Labeling Theory Reaction to Positivism (scientific method) Crime is an act that only becomes criminal when observers define it as such Master Status (Becker) o Labeled person is subject to the negative effects of the label Quinney o Advanced capitalist economy is the foundation of American society. o The state works to serve the interests of the capitalist ruling class. o Criminal law is merely an instrument of that class to perpetuate the current social and economic order. o A variety of institutions run by government elites representing the interests of the ruling class, are utilized for crime control with the purpose of establishing domestic order. o The coercion and violence of the legal system are necessary to maintain the required oppression of the subordinate classes, because of the inherent contradictions of advanced capitalism. o A new society based on socialist principles is a necessary part of the solution to crime control. This cannot occur without the collapse of the capitalist society. Tannenbaum o By labeling you are actually encouraging and reinforcing behavior. o First label is more important than any other experience in making the criminal. o Self-Fulfilling Prophecy Youth becomes what they are described as being Doesn’t matter the intention of label Lamert o Primary Deviance A minute infraction, sporadic o Secondary Deviance Result of social reaction to the primary deviance Results in stigmatization Becker o Social groups create deviance by:
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2 Making the rules Applying those rules to particular people Labeling them outsiders Karl Marx (Influences) Class divisions are acute in capitalist society Working class exploited by bourgeoisie Crime is a natural byproduct of inherent contradictions of capitalism This type of environment will breed crime Concepts of Justice Crime Control Model o Protect the public o Deter criminal behavior o Incapacitate known criminals o Exclusionary rule If evidence is gain unlawfully it can’t be used against you o Miranda rights Read your rights Justice Model o Emphasizes fairness and equal treatment Due Process Model o Protect civil rights of the accused o Seen as too lenient Rehabilitation Model o Criminals are victims of social injustice, poverty, and racism o Suggests appropriate treatment can change them Non-Intervention Model o Arresting and labeling does more harm then good o Youth (especially) should be diverted to informal treatment o Minor offenses should be decriminalized Restorative Justice Model o Emphasizes promotion of peaceful, just society through reconciliation and reintegration of offenders into society
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This note was uploaded on 04/03/2008 for the course SOC 222 taught by Professor Bloom during the Spring '07 term at Rutgers.

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Final Review - 1 Labeling Theory Reaction to Positivism...

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