Module 8 - Module 8 Adolescence Development The Developing Person Through the Lifespan Chapter 14 Adolescence Biosocial Development \u25cf Puberty Begins

Module 8 - Module 8 Adolescence Development The Developing...

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Module 8 - Adolescence Development The Developing Person Through the Lifespan Chapter 14 - Adolescence: Biosocial Development Puberty Begins Puberty The time between the first onrush of hormones and full adult physical development. Usually lasts three to five years. Many more years are required to achieve psychosocial maturity. Menarche - A girl’s first menstrual period, signaling that she has begun ovulation. Pregnancy is biologically possible, but ovulation and menstruation are often irregular for years after menarche. Spermarche - A boy’s first ejaculation of sperm. Erections can occur as early as infancy, but ejaculation signals sperm production. Hormone An organic chemical substance that is produced by one body tissue and conveyed via the bloodstream to another to affect some physiological function. Various hormones influence thoughts, urges, emotions, and behavior. Pituitary A gland in the brain that responds to a signal from the hypothalamus by producing many hormones, including those that regulate growth and control other glands, among them the adrenal and sex glands. Adrenal glands - Two glands, located above the kidneys Produce hormones, including the “stress hormones” epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine HPA (hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal) axis - A sequence of hormone production Originates in the hypothalamus, moving to the pituitary and then to the adrenal glands. Sex Hormones Gonads - The paired sex glands (ovaries in females, testicls in males) Produce hormones and gametes HPG (hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad) axis - A sequence of hormone production Originates in the hypothalamus, moves to the pituitary gland and then to the gonads Estradiol - A sex hormone, considered the chief estrogen. Females produce more estradiol than males do. Testosterone - A sex hormone, the best known of the androgens (male hormones). Secreted in far greater amounts by males than by females. Age and Puberty The rise in hormone levels that signals puberty is still considered normal in those as young as age 8 or as old as age 14. About 2/3 of the variation in age of puberty is genetic.
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Body Fat Data on puberty over the centuries reveals a dramatic example of a long-term statistical increase or decrease called a secular trend. The secular trend has stopped in developed nations, possibly due to nutrition. Leptin A hormone that affects appetite and is believed to affect the onset of puberty. Levels increase during adulthood and peak at around age 12 Stress Affects fertility and puberty by making reproduction more difficult Puberty arrives earlier if: A child’s parents are sick, addicted or divorced The neighborhood is violent and impoverished Not all scientists agree that stress causes early puberty Too Early, Too Late Early-maturing girls tend to have lower self-esteem, more depression, and poorer body image than later-maturing girls.
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