Chapter Summaries

Chapter Summaries - Chapter 1 Overgeneralization – occurs...

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Chapter 1 Overgeneralization – occurs when we unjustifiably conclude that what is true for some cases is true for all cases Selective or Inaccurate Observation – choosing to look only at things that are in line with our preferences or beliefs Illogical Reasoning – when we prematurely jump to conclusions or argue on the basis of invalid assumptions Resistance to Change – the reluctance to change our ideas in light of new information Four Types of Research – description, exploration, explanation, evaluation Generalizability – exists when a conclusion holds true for the population, group, setting, or event that we say it does, given the conditions that we specify Sample Generalizability – exists when a conclusion based on a sample, or subset, of a larger population holds true for that population Chapter 2 Social Research Question – question about the social world that you seek to answer through the collection and analysis of firsthand, verifiable, empirical data Deductive Research – starting with a social theory and then testing some of its implications with data; it is most often the strategy used in QUANTITATIVE methods Inductive Research – collecting the data and then developing a theory that explains it; typically used with QUALITATIVE methods Direction of Association – an increase in the independent variable leads to an increase or decrease in the dependent variable; positive or negative Empirical Generalization – pattern in the data Inductive Reasoning – enters into deductive research when we find unexpected patterns in data collected for testing a hypothesis Anomalous Patterns – patterns don’t seem to fit the theory being proposed Serendipitous Patterns – we may learn exciting, surprising new things from the patterns Ecological Fallacy – when a researcher draws hasty conclusions about individual level processes from group level data is committing an ecological fallacy *** *** Reductionism – reducing group behaviors to that of individuals; reverse of the ecological fallacy *** ***
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Institutional Review Board (IRB) – federal regulations require that institutions that seek federal funding
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Chapter Summaries - Chapter 1 Overgeneralization – occurs...

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